The Americans & British in Germany Stamps 1945-1949 (Bizone)

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The Americans & British in Germany Stamps 1945-1949 (Bizone)

Post by OldDuffer1 »

I would intend this thread to complement the excellent “The Russians in Germany Stamps 1945-49 (Soviet Zone)” :

https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=17&t=16899

I apologise in advance for the inevitable simplifications below and welcome additions/corrections!

There have been a number of threads relating both to the 1945 Bizone (AM) issues and the 1948 post revaluation issues but it may be useful to consolidate these into one portmanteau thread.

I would dedicate this to Jay Carrigan –Europhil on these boards, who sadly passed away in 2015.

For those Members not familiar with the postal history of the Allied Occupation of Germany, here is a short summary relating to the American and British zones:
From Michel Specialized: “Occupation began on September 11, 1944. In Aachen, occupied on October 21, 1944, postal service limited to official mail and newspapers began on January 24, 1945.

On March 19, 1945 limited civilian postal service was permitted at the same time as the first issue of AM postage stamps was released.

Gradually during 1945 other postal authorities issued the AM stamps: June 20 RPD Braunschweig (Brunswick) and RPD Hannover; June 25 RPD Hamburg and Keil; June 30 Bonn; July 1 RPD Bremen, Dortmund, and Münster (Westphalia); July 2 the remaining postal administrations in the British Zone; July 5 Frankfurt; July 15-16 Bavaria; and later the remaining postal administrations in the American Zone.”

For more detail see: Richard L.Wagner The Allied Military Government Postal Service in Germany 1945-1949, Thesis, 1977(PDF):

https://esirc.emporia.edu/bitstream/handle/123456789/2447/Wagner%201977.pdf?sequence=1

The French, of course, although originally supposed to join in with the Americans and British as far as postal services were concerned, decided to “do their own thing” and issued their own stamps for use in the French zone, both before and after the 1948 revaluation of the German Mark.

In relation to the Russian Zone, see the relevant thread mentioned above.

PART 1:1945 “AM” (Allied Military) Issues

Note that I will leave the “Local” issues from the American and British zones to those much more expert than myself!

I will illustrate with items from my own collection, but, since this is quite limited, would hope that this would soon be added to by other Members!

Initially, of course, all mail currently in the postal system had to be checked:
"When this was felt appropriate, and after inspection and censorship where necessary, this mail was then forwarded to the recipient. Any Nazi period stamps on them were also often defaced."

Wagner, 1977
(It should be noted that most of the previous postal staff and facilities were retained).

Examples are often called “Überroller” mail.
Here is an example dated 16.03.45 bearing an American censor* mark:

Image

Note that in this example the “Hitler Head” stamp has not been defaced!

* For more examples and information on mail censorship during this period see the thread:

“Post WW2 Censor covers. When did they stop?”:

https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=10&t=9289

Both before and after the AM stamp issue, covers were often posted with pre-payment and bear the legend “Tax perçue” or more commonly “Gebühr bezahlt”. Here are a couple of examples:

Image

Image

Many collectors concentrate on just these issues.

From Michel Specialized: “Following May 8, 1945 the Reich Printing Office in Berlin was not available for the time being to print postage stamps. Due to a lack of stamps, resumption of the postal service was, to a large degree, dependent on cash payment of postage to make postal services possible between the individual zones. Even after the introduction of new stamps, acute shortages of stamps occurred in all zones, so post offices often had to resort to emergency measures to frank pieces of mail”.

The Allied Military Control stamps were issued in 3 batches.

Firstly, issued on March19th 1945, a series printed in America of 9 values:

Image
Mi1-9

The second issue is the English printing of 6 values (distinguished by having much narrower perforations):

Image
Mi10-15

Finally, the German Printing of 20 values, distinguished by some details of the patterns (See the thread “Germany AM Post Stamps 1945-46 - what was their purpose?”

https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=10&t=47259%20%20for%20more%20details).

Image
Mi16-35

All these were valid until 31.10.46 and often tolerated until 07.11.46.

The sheets bear the legend “Allied Military Postage Stamps- Germany xPfennig” on the margins. Here is an example from the American Printing:

Image

The plate number is also stated (missing from my example)

These margin fragments show that the same legend was applied for the English printing:

Image

And the German printing:

Image

There are many plate flaws, perforation varieties etc. related to these issues which other Members may wish to elaborate on.

Early use covers tend to fetch high prices, although "favour" cancels also seem to exist- see -
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=29&t=74914

Here is an example on cover from 11.08.45. Note that the Regional Letter rate was 12Pf until 01.03.46; it had remained at this value since Dec. 1st 1933!

Image
Mi7

Another example from 1945 bearing Mi15:

Image
Note the "Feldpost" cover being used.

This example with two 12Pf stamps, from 14.03.46, illustrates the doubling of most postal rates that took place in March 1946, due to inflation of the currency:

Image
Mi23

This example shows the somewhat scarcer use of a single 24Pf stamp:

Image
Mi27

Finally a cover with “out of validity” AM stamps ,dated 27.07.47, which has attracted postage due (“Nachgebühr”**):

Image
Mi1,24

** For more examples of “Nachgebühr” on Allied Occupied Germany covers see thread “Allied Occupied Germany: “Nachgebühr” Markings (Postage Due)”:
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=17&t=51189

From 1946 until 1948 Joint Issues were produced which were used in all 3 zones.

To see Jay Carrigan’s pages on AMG Postal History go to: https://www.jaypex.com/AMG/Ganzsachen/
(Still available to view at this date)
To see the page: “Emergency Cancellations on German AMG Issues, 1945-1946” go to “Exhibits”.

In Part 2 I would intend to cover briefly the issues produced for use in the American and British zones after the introduction of the Deutschmark in June 1948.
Last edited by OldDuffer1 on 21 Jul 2017 22:30, edited 3 times in total.
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Re: The Americans and British in Germany Stamps1945-1949(Biz

Post by tacomabob »

Greatly looking forward to part 2

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Re: The Americans and British in Germany Stamps1945-1949(Biz

Post by organicm »

tacomabob wrote:Greatly looking forward to part 2
Hear Hear.

I have been thinking about splitting up my AM post series into different printings for a while.
I am going to do it now. I wont have all of them. Maybe I will leave my current page and start new pages. Mark
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Re: The Americans and British in Germany Stamps1945-1949(Biz

Post by OldDuffer1 »

organicm wrote:
tacomabob wrote:Greatly looking forward to part 2
Hear Hear.

I have been thinking about splitting up my AM post series into different printings for a while.
I am going to do it now. I wont have all of them. Maybe I will leave my current page and start new pages. Mark
Thanks for the positive comments.

You will certainly need your magnifier, organicm, to identify the German Printing items!

Part 2 may be a wee while in coming. :?

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Re: The Americans and British in Germany Stamps1945-1949(Biz

Post by maptrekker »

Inscription blocks from the American printing with plate numbers. The inscription appears on the top or bottom of the pane depending on the pane position on the printer's press sheet.

The 4pf block is from the upper left quarter of the printer's sheet and the 10pf is from the lower left quarter.

Image
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Re: The Americans and British in Germany Stamps1945-1949(Biz

Post by maptrekker »

An inscription block from the German printing showing the lower-margin row counters and left-margin row value numbers. This is similar to the German printing inscription shown earlier.

Image

A corner block from the German printing showing the upper-margin row value numbers and the sheet counting number in the right margin.

Image
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Re: The Americans and British in Germany Stamps1945-1949(Biz

Post by maptrekker »

The German printing of the medium-size stamps have different marginal markings. The vertical bars from the upper and lower margins have been removed. Diagonal hatching has been added to the side margins.

An inscription block showing the lower-margin row counters and left-margin row value numbers.

Image

A corner block showing the upper-margin row value numbers and the sheet counting number in the right margin.

Image
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Re: The Americans and British in Germany Stamps1945-1949(Biz

Post by organicm »

OldDuffer1 wrote:
organicm wrote:
tacomabob wrote:Greatly looking forward to part 2
Hear Hear.

I have been thinking about splitting up my AM post series into different printings for a while.
I am going to do it now. I wont have all of them. Maybe I will leave my current page and start new pages. Mark

You will certainly need your magnifier, organicm, to identify the German Printing items!
Yes.

I didn't have any trouble sorting the London prints (I need the 8pf) but I got stuck on the German and American prints.
I was using my magnifier on the scroll near the top right but I still wasn't confident.
My club meeting is tonight and I am going to ask if there is someone there who can help me. Mark
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Re: The Americans and British in Germany Stamps1945-1949(Biz

Post by OldDuffer1 »

Thanks for adding the excellent pics,maptrekker. Interesting about the different printing arrangement of medium sizes.

If you look at the last of maptrekker's images, organicm, you will see the tell-tale mark in the top (or any) corner of the scrolly design-on the RHS but just to the left of the line next to the "P"-there's a little extra white detail in the German printing- I find that the easiest "marker" to spot.

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Re: The Americans & British in Germany Stamps 1945-1949 (Biz

Post by organicm »

Thanks Duffer, you made it so easy.

I had arranged tonight to take all my AMs to a small gathering next week and we would try and sort out the American and German prints but now I will take them along and show everyone how to distinguish them. Mark
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Re: The Americans & British in Germany Stamps 1945-1949 (Biz

Post by maptrekker »

1. Note the extra white to the left of the "P" on the German printing as Old Duffer pointed out. Also to the left of the "G". Note all the extra white throughout on the German printing.

The foot of the central "M" follow the curve of the central oval on the German printing. It is straighter on the American printing.

The stamps of the American printing are slightly taller (2mm) than the German printing.

Image

Same when comparing the British and German printings.

Image
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Re: The Americans & British in Germany Stamps 1945-1949 (Biz

Post by johnrcrow »

I have just scanned in pages of AM and thought they might be useful here.

Basically I have organised stamps in terms of issue, papers, perfs etc and scans reflect variations.

I hope this is not too much? Please ignore several mistakes in scans e.g. appearance of word text (forgot to delete).

Information in grey boxes gives CV Michel for mint examples to help assess scarcity, and also notes different papers possible and possible shades.

Later I show used some mixes with used examples.

Scan 1. German printing (Brunswick) A Perf 11 x 11. 1Pf to 25Pf. Paper z.


Image



Scan 2. German printing (Brunswick) A Perf 11 x 11. 30Pf to 1M. Paper z.


Image



Scan 3. German printing (Brunswick) B Perf 11 x 11 1/2. 1Pf to 25Pf. Paper z.


Image


Scan 4. German printing (Brunswick) B Perf 11 x 11 1/2. Higher Pf values. Paper z.


Image



Scan 5. German printing (Brunswick) C Perf 11 1/2 x 11. 1Pf to 25Pf. Paper z.


Image




Scan 6. German printing (Brunswick) C Perf 11 1/2 x 11. 30Pf to 80Pf. Paper z.


Image

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Re: The Americans & British in Germany Stamps 1945-1949 (Biz

Post by johnrcrow »

Scan 7. German printing (Brunswick) D Perf. 11 1/2 x 11 1/2. 1Pf to 80Pf. Paper z.


Image



Scan 8. London printing A Perf. 14 1/4 x 14 1/4. Paper y.


Image



Scan 9. London printing B Perf. 14 1/4 x 14 1/2. and C Perf. 14 1/4 x 14 3/4. Paper y.


Image




Scan 10. London printing F Perf. 14 3/4 x 14 1/4. Paper y.


Image



Scan 11. London printing G Perf. 14 3/4 x 14 1/2. Paper y.


Image



Scan 12. London printing rare perf. E 14 1/2 X 14 1/2


Image

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Re: The Americans & British in Germany Stamps 1945-1949 (Biz

Post by johnrcrow »

Scan 13. Emergency Brunswick printing Perf. 11 x 11.



Image


American printings. Michel 1-9


Scan 14 a. American printing page of cancelled examples.


Image



Scan 14 b. American printing enlarged examples from 14a.


Image


Scan 14 c. American printing enlarged examples from 14a.



Image




Scan 14 d. American printing enlarged examples from 14a.


Image

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Re: The Americans & British in Germany Stamps 1945-1949 (Biz

Post by OldDuffer1 »

Thanks for posts, johnrcrow. That is certainly not "too much" but in fact was exactly the type of contribution I was hoping for!
I see some of the varieties are quite expensive!

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Re: The Americans & British in Germany Stamps 1945-1949 (Biz

Post by johnrcrow »

Scan 15a. London Printing page. Perf. A. 14 1/4 x 14 /14- Cancelled & mint. Different papers.


Image

Note increased CV for used. Assuming cancels genuine. Some proofed.

Values in grey boxes reflect HM NHM and used € Mi. CV respectively.


Scan 15b. London Printing page. Perf. A. 14 1/4 x 14 /14- Enlarged from 15a.


Image


Scan 15c. London Printing page. Perf. A. 14 1/4 x 14 /14- Enlarged from 15a.


Image

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Re: The Americans & British in Germany Stamps 1945-1949 (Biz

Post by johnrcrow »

Scan 16a. London printing perf. B 14 1/4 x 14 1/2. Perf C. 14 1/4 x 14 3/4 Mainly cancelled.

Mistake for Perf C in scan noted (not 14 1/4 x 14 1/2).

Image



Scan 16b. London printing perf. B 14 1/4 x 14 1/2. Enlarged.


Image



Scan 16c. London printing perf. C 14 1/4 x 14 3/4. Enlarged. (Note mistake in perf definition).

Note high CV for Mi. 6 Cz! (not proofed).


Image

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Re: The Americans & British in Germany Stamps 1945-1949 (Biz

Post by johnrcrow »

A few flaws. Issues are riddled with these.


Scan 17 a. Mi. 10 II.



Image



Scan 17b. Mi. 10 III.


Image




Scan 17c. Mi. 18 I.


Image


Scan 17d. Mi. 28 I.


Image

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Re: The Americans & British in Germany Stamps 1945-1949 (Biz

Post by OldDuffer1 »

johnrcrow wrote:A few flaws. Issues are riddled with these.
Thanks again for contributions. I guess the stamps were produced in a hurry!
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Re: The Americans & British in Germany Stamps 1945-1949 (Biz

Post by johnrcrow »

More flaws.

Scan a. Mi. 5 III.


Image



Scan b. Mi. 8 IX.



Image





Scan c. Mi. 9 I.



Image





Scan d. Mi. 16 V.



Image




Scan e. Mi. 17 VI.



Image




Scan f. Mi. 22 II



Image




Scan g. Mi 23 XXII. (G damaged).



Image




Scan h. Mi. 29 XX.



Image




Scan i. Mi. 30 XXI.

Image

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Re: The Americans & British in Germany Stamps 1945-1949 (Biz

Post by johnrcrow »

Now a range of interesting postmarks and bits and pieces.


Scan j. Flensburg 25.4 46. 6Pf. American printing.


Image



Scan k. Munchen and Bad Schwalbad.



Image





Scan l. 12Pf. American printing. Piece with full cancel.



Image





Scan m. German printings 6Pf. Note orange deeper than American printings.



Image





Scan n. Pretty strip of 4. 6Pf American printing.



Image

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Re: The Americans & British in Germany Stamps 1945-1949 (Biz

Post by johnrcrow »

Scan o. 5Pf American printing. Munchen 54. 28.10.46.



Image




Scan p. American printing. Pair and single.



Image




Scan q. 8Pf. American priming. Pair Munchen 75. 29.8.45.



Image




Scan r. Enhanced shades for Mi. 7. 12Pf. American printing.



Image

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Re: The Americans & British in Germany Stamps 1945-1949 (Biz

Post by ikanek »

johnrcrow wrote: Scan k. Munchen and Bad Schwalbad.

Image
A small correction - it is Bad Schwalbach.

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Re: The Americans & British in Germany Stamps 1945-1949 (Biz

Post by johnrcrow »

Thanks for correction. Any input on cancels welcome.



Scan s. American printing. 12 Pf. Selvedges.


Image


Scan t. American printing. 6 Pf.


Image




Scan u. American printing. 8 Pf. vertical pair.


Image




Scan v. Selvedges 8 and 12 Pf American.


Image




Scan w. Damage to printed Pfennig on top pair 15Pf Amercian printing.


Image




Scan x . Plate number 45866 on 4Pf American printing strip 4Pf. Mi. 2x - PL-Nr.


Image




Scan y. Nice block of 4 25Pf American with printing aberrations.


Image



Scan z. Some of inscription on 15Pf Amercian printing.



Image





The One mark cancelled problem. is it genuine cancel?

I cannot find an example of the cancel (arcs with bars- a Kreis-Gitter-Stempel) in data banks, all are arcs without bars from Flensburg so I suspect not genuine.

Pity since used examples have a CV of €650!


Maybe others can find me a relevant cancel (Flensburg 1).


Scan a1.



Image

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Re: The Americans & British in Germany Stamps 1945-1949 (Biz

Post by johnrcrow »

A few more blocks and pieces-



Scan b1. Block with flaw Mi. 1.1



Image



Scan c1. Close up of flaw.



Image




Scan d1. Block 15Pf American printing with plate number.


Image



Scan e1. Roller cancelled 4 x 25 Pf American printing.



Image






Scan f1. 15Pf American printing with flaw mi. 6 VIII.



Image



Scan g1. Roller cancelled 10Pf American printing. Block of 4.


Image




Scan h1. Mixed.


Image

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Re: The Americans & British in Germany Stamps 1945-1949 (Biz

Post by johnrcrow »

Now to dig out letters and cards.

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Re: The Americans & British in Germany Stamps 1945-1949 (Biz

Post by OldDuffer1 »

Thanks again for posts, johnrcrow. Do have any really early use on cover to show?

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Re: The Americans & British in Germany Stamps 1945-1949 (Biz

Post by johnrcrow »

I am trying to find cards etc.

Only ones found so far are below.

Letter 1a. American and Brunswick stamps.


Image



Letter 1b. Enlarged stamps 1a. 11.10.45?


Image



Letter 2. 1946


Image



Letter 3. American and Brunswick again. 5.10 45.




Image




Letter 3b.manipulated cancel from 3a.



Image


Looking for more, somewhere, I am sure. (Oath of hoarder)?

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Re: The Americans & British in Germany Stamps 1945-1949 (Biz

Post by johnrcrow »

POSTCARDS

Here are the definitions of postcards available in era.

As given in purchased AMG series.

Postcard 1.

Image

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Re: The Americans & British in Germany Stamps 1945-1949 (Biz

Post by johnrcrow »

Postcard 1a. Enlarged card.

Image




Postcard 2a.

Image





Postcard 2b. Enlarged 2a.


Image





Postcard 3a.

Image


Postcard 3b. Enlarged 3a. (ignore orange box)-


Image





Postcard 4a.

Image


Postcard 4b. Enlarged 4a.


Image

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Re: The Americans & British in Germany Stamps 1945-1949 (Biz

Post by johnrcrow »

Postcard 5a.

Image


Postcard 5b. Enlarged 5a.


Image


Postcard 6a.


Image



Postcard 6b. Enlarged 6a.

Image



Postcard 7a.


Image



Postcard 7b. Enlarged 7a.


Image



Postcard 8a. Travel Board Fiscal stamps.


Image


Postcards 8b. Enlarged 8a:


Image

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Re: The Americans & British in Germany Stamps 1945-1949 (Biz

Post by johnrcrow »

Hamburg Postcards

HB 9a.

Image


HB 9b. Enlarged 9a.

Image



HB 10a.

Image



HB 10b. Enlarged 10a.



Image


HB 11a.


Image



HB 11b. Enlarged 11a.


Image



HB 12a.


Image



HB 12b. Enlarged 12a.


Image

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Re: The Americans & British in Germany Stamps 1945-1949 (Biz

Post by johnrcrow »

50th Anniversary Cover.


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Re: The Americans & British in Germany Stamps 1945-1949 (Biz

Post by OldDuffer1 »

johnrcrow wrote: Postcard 8a. Travel Board Fiscal stamps.

Image
I have never even heard of these! Are they scarce?

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Re: The Americans & British in Germany Stamps 1945-1949 (Biz

Post by OldDuffer1 »

Found out a lot more about them at this site:
http://www.passport-collector.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/05 ... s-v5.3.pdf
Quite slow to load.

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Re: The Americans & British in Germany Stamps 1945-1949 (Biz

Post by johnrcrow »

Very interesting and instructive pages on Travel stamps. Thanks for link.

A new area.

Has anyone examples of these Fiscal stamps?


John

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Re: The Americans & British in Germany Stamps 1945-1949 (Biz

Post by OldDuffer1 »

Part 2: Currency Reform Issues 1948-1949
A brief introduction to the background: (skip if you know all this!)

Following WWII, the German Mark, (Reichsmark and Rentenmark), rapidly lost much of its value, and local trade was often carried out by barter, etc. The Western powers therefore decided to introduce a new currency: the Deutschmark. This was carried out in great secrecy with the crates of notes, (printed in America), being shipped over marked “Bird Dog” – the operation’s codename. The new currency was released on Sunday June 20th.1948. The old currency was exchangeable with the new on a 10:1 basis, with strict limits on maximum amounts.(Pay, rent, etc. was set at a 1:1 basis and large amounts of currency at a much lower rate). The Soviets then announced the introduction of the “Ostmark”* which was also, according to them, to be used in all of Berlin. However the military Commander of West Berlin, General Clay , apparently without consulting Washington, decided to introduce Deutschmark notes ( marked “B”) in West Berlin. This led to the Soviets instigating the Berlin blockade and so on to the Cold War!
*For an example of the emergency "Kupon" note see:
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=17&t=54725

From Michel Specialized: “On June 21, 1948 the currency reform was carried out in the three western occupation zones. (Mail picked up in the first collection from letterboxes on June 21 could still be franked with the old Reichsmark currency).**To obtain the necessary stamp supplies as quickly as possible, the individual regional postal administrations were responsible for having stamps overprinted, and they used private printers in their regions.
The Control Commission Editions (MiNr911-970 ) that had been valid in Germany (with the exception of the French Zone) could be used at the rate of one tenth of their old value from June 21 to 23 (first letter box collection)”
***

**For an example of this type of cover see: https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=17&t=51189&start=100
*** For examples of these types of covers, both “tolerated” and “not tolerated” see again above thread, and below.

“1948, June 21. Definitive Stamps: Partial Edition and partially newly printed stamps from the Allied Occupation Joint Issues MiNr. 943-958 (III. Control Commission Edition)” (often known as the “Worker” series) “with black Bdr. overprint.
I=little post horns between ribbon borders, II=little post horns like a net covering the entire stamp surface.”
(Usually called “Ribbon” and “Net” overprints).

Notes- It is clear from the above that this was not just a matter of “using up” currently held stocks of stamps but that new ones were also printed and distributed. It appears that the plates needed for overprinting were also produced centrally. (For example, all the “net” sheets carry the same variations). For more thoughts on this see:
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=10&t=64162
Containing, sadly, one of the last of Europhil’s posts. Why two different designs were chosen is currently unclear.

Here is an example of the "Ribbon" design:

Image
Mi44I

and the "Net" design:

Image
Mi44II

Here is the “Ribbon” Series:

Image

Note that Mi49I, (and to a lesser extent 49II), is a lot scarcer than A49I (and A49II) since the original 60Pf Mi956 was issued on March 1 1947 but its replacement, MiA956, was issued on Feb. 1 1948 and so was presumably more readily available.

Image
Mi956

Image
MiA956 block with Job Number

And the “Net” series:

Image

These issues were valid until September 19th 1948, also in West Berlin.

As to be expected with overprints there are many errors/varieties such as “inverted”, “diagonal”, “double” , printed on back, etc.

The issue of these overprinted stamps, particularly their use in West Berlin, led to the start of the “Postal War” (Postkrieg) between the Soviet Zone, (and latterly DDR), and the Western zones (see Part 3 for more details).

Here is an example of a “first day of issue” cover, dated 21.06.48. Note that some 1/10th value (“10 fach”) stamps were used to make up the postage rate of 16Pf for a Local Letter:

Image
Mi38I,918,928(x2),946

Here is a standard “Regional Letter” rate cover, (although actually overpaid as is a local letter), bearing the 24Pf Mi44I, dated 17.07.48:

Image

Here is one bearing the slightly less commonly seen on cover, Mi44II, dated 30.06.48:

Image

Here is quite an attractive Registered cover flown from Tempelhof during the “Berlin Airlift”, dated 02.09.48:

Image
Mi39I,43II,45II,46I

Here is another “10 Fach” cover, dated 22.06.48 with the Mi44I “topped” up with previous issues at 1/10th value to make up the Registered rate of 76Pf:

Image
Mi943,A956,961,968,969,970

On 1st September 1948 most postage rates were reduced in the Western Zones. There was quite a short period, therefore, when these stamps were still valid with the new postal rates -until 19.09.48 – see above.

Here is an example of a single 20Pf stamp on cover , being the new rate for a Regional letter. Date:03.09.48.

Image
Mi43II

Here is an example of “out of validity” overprints on a cover dated 12.10.48:

Image
Mi40I(x2)

Although, apparently, the stamps were not even necessary as :“"Portopflichtige Dienstsache" allowed the official sender to post without franking, with the recipient obliged to pay postage. The recipient had to pay the normal postage fee without any additional postage due fees, hence 20 Pfg in this case.” PBR, StampBoards.

A number of the earlier Trizone “Numerals” issue were also overprinted. Some of these are quite scarce, particularly on cover. (“Mi912,917 to 923,925-929,931,932,934 and 936” were officially sanctioned to be overprinted).

Here are a few examples:

Image
Mi54I,57I,62I,63I,65I,66I,67I,68I,67II,68II

Here is an example of Mi67II on cover, dated 28.07.48. The “Express” rate of 104Pf is made up with Mi36I(x2),45II:

Image

Michel mentions that for the 1,3,4,5,6,20,42,60,80Pf values- "with post horn overprint that was not recognized by the Main postal authority. Nevertheless use of the stamps for postage was not contested."


Image
MiVI/II
Proofed Schlegel BPP

Authenticated covers with these issues fetch a high price and forgeries of the overprints exist.

The next issue was a set of semi-postals celebrating the 700th Anniversary of Cologne Cathedral, (and presumably raising money for its restoration). Issued Aug.15th 1948:

Image
Mi69-72

On 1st September, also the date of the lowering of postal rates, the “Structures” set (Mi73-100) was issued. For more on the details of this set see: “The strange case of the Germany 1948 Bizone Structures Issue”: https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=17&t=68950

Just for completeness here are the Mark values (not shown in the above thread):

Image
Mi97-100

Here is a cover showing the quite common combined use of an “Overprint” and a “Structures” stamp, dated 17.09.48:

Image
Mi42I,74


Here is a standard “Regional Rate” cover, dated 29.10.48:

Image
Mi84

And one with the ubiquitous Berlin Tax stamp (“Blue Flea”), dated 03.12.48:

Image
Mi84,Mi1

The Berlin Tax stamp became compulsory for internal mail, (apart from mail to or from Berlin and some business/official mail etc.), from 1st December 1948 and continued to be so in the Federal Republic until April 1st 1956.
There are many varieties- some perf. and some imperf. (as on cover above). Some collectors specialise in just these issues.

For more details about the “Blue Flea”, (and “Yellow Flea”!), see:
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=29&t=25245 and
https://www.gps.nu/exhibits/blue-flea/flea.pdf


The next issue was the “Help Berlin” one of Dec. 14, 1949.
This was followed by the “Export Fair Hannover” issue on April 22, 1949 and the “Bicycle Race” set of May 15,1949:

Image

And finally by the inevitable “Birthday of Goethe” issue of Aug.15, 1949.

Image
Mi108-110

BRD (Bundesrepublik Deutschland) issues commenced on 7 Sept. 1949 but the “Structures” series was valid in West Germany until March 31st, 1953 and the Mark values until Dec. 31st 1954, well after the “end of validity” dates of some of the BRD issues.
(See: https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=17&t=51189&start=150 for an example of a cover where the “Bizone Structures” stamp was still valid but the BRD stamp was rejected as out of validity and “postage due” was applied).

In Part 3 I will briefly describe the issues produced, during the period, for West Berlin.

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Re: The Americans & British in Germany Stamps 1945-1949 (Biz

Post by johnrcrow »

Excellent overview Old Duffer1.

I add some scans of ribbon (net) issues.

As you indicated there are many aberrations. I am also as usual interested in shades of stamps as some are shown in Michel to be scarce.

First I shown Michel tables in English for shades of ribbon issues,

Scan Ribbons 1. Michel table for Mi. 36 and Mi. 37. 2Pf and 6Pf. Overprint I is single ribbon, II has ribbons over entire stamp.



Image



Note high CV for shades c and d for Mi. 36I and II and d and e for Mi. 37 I and II.

In my other thread I have used computer enhancement (increasing saturation and contrast mainly) to bring out differences in shades. When one has a number of examples then it is possible to see differences that are not obvious using by-eye only examination.

I now show examples for the 6pf Mi. 37 I.


Ribbon scan 2. Different shades after enhancement. Column 1 and 2 the same stamps with different degrees enhancement. Column 3 enlarged portion.



Image

Given that different computers/screens will display colours differently I hope you can see differences in shades.

The last row (e) shows unused stamps where the blue is definitely enhanced more than for the used (row 4)


This brings up authenticity of identifying shades.

I seem to have a relatively high number of enhanced scarce shades and this either means that I am correct and that shades rarity is wrong or that my method of shade identification is inaccurate.

I find however, that there are 4 distinct shades and this ´fits`the Michel definitions.


Ribbon scan 3. Different shades after enhancement for 36 I. Column 1 and 2 the same stamps with different degrees enhancement. Row 1 I define as Michel a, row 2 as Michel c and row 3 as Michel d.



Image


These are not so easy. However, the row 1 shades are extremely common in my 60 examples (56/60), row b and d are scarce (2/60 and 2/60 respectively).

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Re: The Americans & British in Germany Stamps 1945-1949 (Biz

Post by johnrcrow »

Here is Michel table for Mi. 38-51.


Image

Again some high CV for certain shades.



Ribbon scan 4. Example for 16Pf shades.



Image



I am not showing more enhanced scan but can conclude that the method of enhancement very much improves the chances of seeing differences in shades.


Errors to nets


Ribbon scan 5. Michel descriptions of classical errors to ribbons.



Image


Here are few examples for types I and II.

Ribbon scan 6a. II 2

Image



Ribbon scan 6b II 2


Image


Ribbon scan 6c. II 3



Image

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Re: The Americans & British in Germany Stamps 1945-1949 (Biz

Post by johnrcrow »

Ribbon scan 6d. I 3.


Image




Ribbon scan 6e. 1 3.

Image

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Re: The Americans & British in Germany Stamps 1945-1949 (Biz

Post by OldDuffer1 »

Thanks for your kind remarks and fascinating posts, johnrcrow. This all seems to point to plates (?) being supplied centrally to the different Postal Districts- quite an operation!

Can anyone fill us in on the exact way these types of overprints would have been carried out? I, for one, am very hazy about the printing techniques involved!

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Re: The Americans & British in Germany Stamps 1945-1949 (Biz

Post by johnrcrow »

Good point OldDuffer1. I too would lie to know the techniques involved.

I will post more aberrations soon.

John

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Re: The Americans & British in Germany Stamps 1945-1949 (Biz

Post by OldDuffer1 »

Part 3 – West Berlin Issues 1948-49
Note that my personal collection of this area is quite limited, due to the high cost of a number of these issues. For the sake of complete coverage I have added images from elsewhere where necessary.
Note that all covers shown are from my collection.


Although the “Posthorn” overprinted and subsequent Bizone issues were also valid in West Berlin,* it was decided to issue special stamps for West Berlin. These were also valid in the BRD from 20.1.50.

*even the Soviet “Bezirkshandstempel” issues of June 1948 were valid until July 10th 1948 and the “SBZ” overprints until March 20th ,1949 in West Berlin!
See: : https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=17&t=16899 for coverage of these issues.

The first issue was the so-called “Black Berlin” overprint, again on the Trizone “Worker” series. Issued 3-6th September,1948; all 20 values were overprinted, including the “Peace Dove” Mark values.
Here is the set:


Image
Image
Image
Mi1-20 Valid until 31.03.49

These could apparently be purchased for “Ostmarks” – representing a considerable saving due to the favourable exchange rate with the Deutschmark.

Here is a standard Regional Letter rate cover, dated 15.01.49:

Image
Mi9

Here is a rather “philatelic” cover bearing all the 24Pf stamps valid in West Berlin at the date- 04.09.48:

Image
Mi44I,44II(Bizone);190(SBZ);9(Berlin)

As mentioned previously, these and subsequent issues were subject to “postkrieg” by the Soviet Authorities.
For an example cover see: https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=17&t=73673

Note that this also bears the “Luftbrücke Berlin” (Berlin Airlift) special cancellation. This was only permitted on the “Black Berlin” overprint issues and was available at the Charlottenberg 2, (by far the most commonly seen), SW11 and Spandau 1 Post Offices.

Here are examples of each:

Image

Image

Image

From January 20th to March 21st 1949 the “Red Berlin” overprint series was issued.
This was limited to 12 Pfennig and 2 Mark values.
Here is the set:

Image
Image
Mi21-34 Valid until 31.01.50

These, apparently, had to be purchased with Deutschmarks.

Fake examples of these and of the “Black overprint” series, and of covers bearing them, exist.

This cover, dated 050549, has the 24Pf Regional Letter rate made up with a number of stamps. (Overpaid by 1Pf with a “Buildings” issue stamp –see later- for some reason). Note that the 24Pf “Worker” stamp was not included in the Red overprint series, even though the Regional Letter rate did not drop to 20Pf until June 1st 1949 in West Berlin!

Image
Mi21,22(x2),24,42

This cover bears a single 20Pf stamp since at its date, 07.07.49, this was then the Regional Letter rate, as mentioned above:

Image
Mi26

The first non-overprinted issue was “75 Years of UPU” on April 9th, 1949:

Image
Mi35-41 Valid until 30.06.51

A special cancellation was issued, generally seen tied to stamps of this issue, encouraging the purchase of goods from West Berlin, as the Airlift aircraft were often returning from Berlin only partially loaded. (How successful this campaign was, I cannot say!)

Here is a cover dated 25.04.49:

Image
Mi37

The next issue (21st March-25th Oct.1949) was the “Buildings” set:


Image
Image
Mi42-60 Valid until 31.12.58

On 29th July, 1949 the “Goethe birthday” issue:

Image
Mi61-63 Valid until 30.09.50

On 1st Aug. 1949 a further overprinted set was produced, presumably due to a shortage of other stamps:

Image
Mi64-67 Valid until 30.06.51

Here is an example of each on cover, (the 1Mark on cover is quite scarce).

Image

Image

Image

Image

Reverse showing India receiving cancellation:

Image

Finally these Semi-postals raising funds for those badly affected by the currency change. These are expensive issues, particularly the Block, and particularly on cover. Again forgeries exist.
The 3 stamps:

Image
Mi68-70 Valid until 30.06.51

And the Block:

Image
MiBlock1

I do have a cut fragment of this in my collection, obtained at a fairly reasonable cost due to the vandalism inflicted by someone!

West Berlin stamps continued to be produced right up until 1990 although, as mentioned above, they became valid in the rest of West Germany from January 1950.

For an example of a cover where a West Berlin stamp was treated as invalid due to being used before this date in the Federal Republic, (and subjected to postage due), see:
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=17&t=51189&start=50

I hope that the above posts have proved of interest, particularly to those Members not familiar with this area of collecting and, of course, that they will be the basis for a lot of additional posts by other Members!

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Re: The Americans & British in Germany Stamps 1945-1949 (Biz

Post by johnrcrow »

Nicely done OldDuffer1.

I hope your efforts are appreciated, especially by those who are not so familiar with this era.

I will patiently dig out anything of interest.

John

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Re: The Americans & British in Germany Stamps 1945-1949 (Biz

Post by OldDuffer1 »

johnrcrow wrote:Very interesting and instructive pages on Travel stamps. Thanks for link.

A new area.

Has anyone examples of these Fiscal stamps?


John
Managed to pick up a few examples at a fairly reasonable price:

Image

Many of these revenues are, presumably, scarce and therefore expensive, particularly the overprinted AM stamp issues.

See: https://www.ericjackson.com/rsubprod1_2x.asp?CAT=AMG%5FMTP&P1=&P2=&q2=&SORT=&Cond=&page=1

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Re: The Americans & British in Germany Stamps 1945-1949 (Biz

Post by OldDuffer1 »

AM Postal Stationery

Johnrcrow put up, earlier in this thread, some of the AM cards produced from both the American and British Zones. It may be interesting to compare these.

Firstly from the American Zone (Stuttgart), Issued Oct./Nov. 1945, valid to 28th Feb. 1947

5Pf:

Image

Used example with postage up-rated to 12Pf being the new Regional postcard rate:

Image

6Pf:

Image

Used example, again up-rated:

Image

We can see that they are just different shades of green, and the designs rather reminiscent of older Germany designs.

The other issues are based on the AM stamp design.

Here is the 5Pf (Local Postcard rate) from the American Zone, (issued Sep. 1945, valid until 31st Oct. 1946):

Image

Used example:

Image

Note on postage- as dated 030946 has been up-rated. It seems since it is "Printed Matter" the rate would have been 6Pf, so slightly overpaid.

The reverse might be of interest to collectors of this period since it obviously consists of some kind of philatelic price list:

Image

If these prices are in Marks, as they seem to be, they must represent some pretty hefty amounts!

and from the British Zone printing (issued Nov. 1945, valid until 31st Oct. 1946, tolerated until Nov. 7th 1946 - all dates from Europhil site- see earlier in thread):

Image

Used example:

Image

We can see that they are just different shades of green, following the colour of the equivalent AM stamp.

When we come to the 6pf (Regional postcard rate) things are a bit odd.
Here is the American printing:

Image

Used example:

Image

We can see that the colour is violet whereas the British printing has followed the stamp colour:

Image

Here is a used example:

Image

Again up-rated.


Any thoughts?

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Re: The Americans & British in Germany Stamps 1945-1949 (Biz

Post by gavin-h »

OldDuffer1 wrote: Here is the 5Pf (Local Postcard rate) from the American Zone, (issued Sep. 1945, valid until 31st Oct. 1946):

Image

Used example:

Image

Note on postage- as dated 030946 has been up-rated. It seems since it is "Printed Matter" the rate would have been 6Pf, so slightly overpaid.

The reverse might be of interest to collectors of this period since it obviously consists of some kind of philatelic price list:

Image

If these prices are in Marks, as they seem to be, they must represent some pretty hefty amounts!
Trying to equate some of these to current Michel values - Mi numbers and 2015 values in RED:

"French Zone - 9 low values without 10pfg. Per 10 sets: 25.-"
Mi 1 - 10 (missing Mi 5): €2.70 per set = €27.-

"Single value 3x Postal value (?) 1 Mark Goethe. Per 5 pieces: 140.-"
Mi 11: €4.50 per stamp = €22.50

"AM Post Brunswick Printing 80Pfg. Per 5 pieces: 115.-"
Mi 34: €40.- per stamp = €200.-

"AM Post Brunswick Printing 1.- M. Per 10 pieces: 170.-"
Mi 35: €8.- per stamp = €80.-

"Deutsche Post 3Pfg. Per sheet: 12.-"
Mi 913: €-.30 per stamp = €30.-

"Plauen semi-postal 11values complete with and without economy gum. Per 3 sets 480.-"
(A bit of an assumption here, as there are actually 13 values listed with paper and gum variations, so I've excluded 2z and 5x which are the "odd" ones) Mi 1y, 2v, w, y, 3v, w, y, 4y, 5y, 6y, 7y: €202.- per set = €606.-

"Leipzig first issue 4 values with large rouletting. Per 5 sets: 100.-
Assume "large rouletting" refers to the Rosswein postmaster separation: Mi 116C - 119C: €150.- per set = €750.-

"Leipzig city without watermark. Per 10 sets: 20.-"
The "Leipzig city" issue is generally understood to refer to Mi 150 et seq, the unwatermarked version was on grey or thick yellowish paper, so taking the cheaper variant: Mi 156x - Mi 161x: €3.50 per set = €35.-

In each case, I've assumed unmounted mint.

Looking at those prices, some "speculation" going on with that list, but similarly some good investments to be had...

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Re: The Americans & British in Germany Stamps 1945-1949 (Biz

Post by OldDuffer1 »

Thanks for that detailed analysis, gavin-h. But how can we know the relative values of a 1946 Mark and a 2017 Euro?

It seems quite difficult to get precise figures but apparently the official rate, introduced by the Allies in 1945, was 40 Marks to £1 and 10 to $1.
See: http://www.history.ucsb.edu/faculty/marcuse/projects/currency.htm#tables
Of course, this valued the $1 at only 5s (25p today)! Since the dollar is currently almost equivalent to a Euro (0.9) we could say 10 Marks to the Euro - so dividing those prices by 10 does give some good investments (but over a 70 year period!).

Alternatively we could use the cost of postage- a standard (Regional) letter up to 20g was 24Pf in 1946. It is now €0.7. This gives an exchange rate of around 3:1. Take your pick!

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Re: The Americans & British in Germany Stamps 1945-1949 (Biz

Post by OldDuffer1 »

OldDuffer1 wrote:Part 3 – West Berlin Issues 1948-49

*even the Soviet “Bezirkshandstempel” issues of June 1948 were valid until July 10th 1948 and the “SBZ” overprints until March 20th ,1949 in West Berlin!
See: : https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=17&t=16899 for coverage of these issues.


To illustrate this point here is a, recently obtained, cover, posted within West Berlin, bearing "SBZ" overprint, Soviet Zone "bezirkshandstempel" (District Hand-stamped), "Posthorn" overprint and "10 fach" (1/10th value) issues!

Image

Obviously contrived and "philatelic" and bearing the cancellation date of 10th July 1948 - the last day of validity of the District Hand-stamped issues- it nevertheless has the right amount of postage for a local Registered cover (76Pf).

The reverse with receiving cancellation:

Image

is probably a "favour"cancellation but still it obviously passed through the post!

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Re: The Americans & British in Germany Stamps 1945-1949 (Biz

Post by HanauMan »

Hello. I just joined today and am finding your topic very interesting.

Just finding my way around the forum but I thought in the meantime that you may be interested in these overprinted Travel Board Fiscal stamps that I bought some time ago.

They are OP in DM (Deutschmarks) and I'd say going by the tag on the DM 4 stamp that they were printed in West Germany.

Image

I knew that they were fiscals but thanks to the previous discussions I now know a little more about them.
Last edited by OldDuffer1 on 23 Jul 2017 23:35, edited 1 time in total.
Reason: Removed extraneous text from image.

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