Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

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RogerE
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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Thanks RevRed+ for showing the postcard with the Irish address.

It is directed to Tralee in County Kerry, but nicely, these place names are written in Irish.

Trá Lí — Tralee
Tralee /træˈliː/ tra-LEE; Irish: Trá Lí [t̪ˠɾˠaː ˈl̠ʲiː], formerly Tráigh Lí [t̪ˠɾˠæːj ˈl̠ʲiː], meaning strand of the Lee River.
Tralee is the county town of County Kerry in the south-west of Ireland. The town is on the northern side of the neck of the Dingle Peninsula, and is the largest town in County Kerry. The town's population (including suburbs) was 23,691 as of the 2016 census, thus making it the 8th largest town... in Ireland. Tralee is well known for the Rose of Tralee International Festival, which has been held annually in August since 1959.
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Screen Shot 2021-07-08 at 11.38.18 am.png
Screen Shot 2021-07-08 at 11.37.48 am.png
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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tralee
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Contae Chiarraí — County Kerry
County Kerry, Irish: Contae Chiarraí is a county in Ireland. It is located in the South-West Region and forms part of the province of Munster. It is named after the Ciarraige who lived in part of the present county. The population of the county was 147,707 at the 2016 census.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/County_Kerry
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The abbreviation Co. = Contae/County is standard practice.
The spelling in the postcard address shown by RevRed+ appears to be Co. Ciarraidhe, with lenition of the "d" (insertion of following "h"). The Wikipedia spelling "Chiarraí" has lenition of the "C".

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Examples of Thaana Script

Several recent posts in the thread about Maldives stamps have included Thaana script, discussed in some detail in the present Stamps and Languages thread at
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=834
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Let's practise reading Thaana script by closely examining recent examples in the Maldives stamps thread.
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އިބްރާހިމް ނާޞިރު ރަންނަބަނޑޭރި ކިލޭގެފާނު
Ibrahim Nasir Rannabandeyri Kilegefan
[މް = m][ހި = hi][ރާ = rā][ބް = b][އި = i] : އިބްރާހިމް
[ރު = ru][ޞި = si][ނާ = nā] : ނާޞިރު
[ރި = ri][ޑޭ = dē][ނ = n][ބަ = ba][ނަ = na][ން = n][ރަ = ra] : ރަންނަބަނޑޭރި
[ނު = nu][ފާ = fā][ގެ = ge][ލޭ = lē][ކި = ki] : ކިލޭގެފާނު

ނިޝާން ޣާޒީގެ ޢިއްޒަތްތެރި ވެރިޔާ
NGIV = Nishan Ghaazeege 'Izzatheri Veriya
Insignia of the Most Distinguished Order of Ghazi
[ން = n][ޝާ = shā][ނި = ni] : ނިޝާން
[ގެ = ge][ޒީ = zī][ޣާ = ghā] : ޣާޒީގެ
[ރި = ri][ތެ = the][ތް = th][ޒަ = za, އްޒަ = zza][އް (gemination)][ޢި = 'i] : ޢިއްޒަތްތެރި
[ޔާ= yā][ރި = ri][ވެ = ve] : ވެރިޔާ
https://stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=17&t=95451&start=89
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These Thaana samples include special characters reserved for transcription of Arabic:
ޝ = sh (sheenu <— ش)
ޞ = s (saadhu <— ص)
ޢ = ' (aïnu <— ع)
ޣ = gh (ghaïnu <— غ)
ޙ = ḥ (ḥā <— ح)

އަލްއަމީރު މުޙަންމަދު ފަރީދު ދީދީ
Al'amīru Muḥanmadu Farīdu Dīdī
[ރު = ru][މީ = mī][އަ = a][ލް = l][އަ = a] : އަލްއަމީރު
[ދު = dhu][މަ = ma][ން = n][ޙަ = ha][މު = mu] : މުޙަންމަދު
[ދު = dhu][ރީ = rī][ފަ = fa] : ފަރީދު
[ދީ = dhī][ދީ = dhī] : ދީދީ
.
https://stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=17&t=95451&start=88
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Bart47 »

Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia) and Malaysian (Bahasa Malaysia) are two varieties of one language. Just as speakers of British English and North American English can usually communicate with each other pretty well, so can speakers of Indonesian and Malaysian.

The different varieties of English do contain differences of vocabulary. For example, a speaker of British English will say autumn, biscuit, pavement and tram, while a speaker of American English will say fall, cookie, sidewalk and streetcar. Analogously there are differences of vocabulary between Indonesian and Malaysian too. Sometimes, though not always, the difference has arisen because Malaysia was once under British domination and Indonesia under Dutch. Thus the word for brake is rem in Indonesian, the same as in Dutch, but brek in Malaysian, which is obviously from English.

However, there are many cases where the pairing of words is not quite so neat. For example, in Indonesian the most usual word for car is mobil from Dutch automobiel; less commonly oto is also used and that too is from Dutch automobiel. Malaysian doesn’t use mobil or oto, and neither does it have a term derived from English. Its word for car is kereta which came from the Portuguese carreta for cart or horse-drawn carriage. Kereta does exist in Indonesian too but only with the meaning of carriage, not car .... there is more of such interesting detail about kereta but it doesn’t belong here.

The purpose of this note is to present one particular pair of words. In Indonesian the word for a postage stamp is perangko which comes from Dutch, and in Malaysian it is setem which comes from English.

It is easy to see that setem comes from the English word stamp. The Indonesian/Malaysian language shuns consonant clusters, so a vowel is inserted between the initial s and t and the final p is dropped; thus setem.

Perangko comes from Dutch franco. There is no f in Indonesian/Malaysian (put technically, any difference between f and p is not phonemic). Thus in imported foreign words, as here, an initial f normally becomes a p. Also, here too a vowel is inserted between the initial two consonants; thus perangko.

But that is not the whole story. In Dutch the normal word for a postage stamp is postzegel; one might expect Indonesian to have adopted a term such as segel pos; after all, Dutch postkantoor (post office) became kantor pos in Indonesian. But no, Indonesian adopted a different Dutch word, franco. This word is not much used in Dutch nowadays, but when it was more common it might have been translated as prepaid postage. So, it seems that, at least in the Netherlands Indies long ago, this word for the concept of prepaid postage shifted meaning to denote the physical small label which signified that postage had been prepaid, the stamp.

An Indonesian stamp was issued in 1964 for the centenary of postage stamps in the country.

Perangko Copy.JPG

This contains the word perangko: ‘seratus tahun perangko di Indonesia’ (a hundred years stamps in Indonesia). Of the seven stamps reproduced on this centenary stamp the most prominent is one current in 1964 with the head of President Sukarno. Behind are three others from the relatively short period since independence, one of which has the old Dutch-style spelling of ‘repoeblik’; then one from the wartime Japanese occupation; then one of the Netherlands Indies from just before the war; finally the imperforate first stamp of the Netherlands Indies from 1864. This sequence may seem at first quite a good design idea but it has the large disadvantage that not much can be seen of the stamps near the back of the queue; it isn’t apparent that the two oldest stamps show Queen Wilhelmina and King Willem III.

The territory of Netherlands Indies in 1864 was roughly equivalent to modern Indonesia, but only roughly. That first Willem III stamp could not have been used all over the area of the present Indonesia since some parts of the archipelago were only taken over by the Dutch later than 1864; this was true of Bali, Lombok, Aceh (northern Sumatra), much of Sulawesi and New Guinea, for example.

Three Malaysian stamps were issued in 1967 for the centenary of postage stamps in the country.

Setem Copy.JPG

The stamps contain the word setem: ‘setem pos ulang tahun ke-100’ (postage stamps 100th anniversary). The design of each one contains one stamp of the set for the Straits Settlements that was first issued in 1867 and one stamp of the Malaysian set of the 1960s depicting indigenous birds. This concept – unlike the Indonesian – offers the chance to compare Victorian with modern taste in stamp design.

The Straits Settlements was a British colony made up of several small territories in or near the Malayan peninsula. The most important was Singapore and probably the old stamps reproduced on the centenary issue were mostly used in Singapore. When the centenary stamps were issued in 1967 some parts of the former Straits Settlements colony – Penang, Malacca and Labuan – were parts of Malaysia, but not Singapore. Singapore had joined the federation of Malaysia in 1963 but left in 1965. The greater part of the territory of modern Malaysia was never part of the Straits Settlements. In the colonial era there were a number of sultanates under British influence. They began issuing stamps in the late 1870s and early 1880s and eventually joined Malaysia. So those stamps of 1867 could only have been used in quite a small part of the territory of 1967 Malaysia.

Strictly speaking the design is not perfectly appropriate. The centenary set does not show the real first stamps of the Straits Settlements – that is, the first stamps sold and intended for use exclusively in the Straits Settlements. The real first stamps were stamps of British India overprinted for use in the Straits Settlements, which were issued in September 1867. The stamps reproduced on the centenary issue were indeed the first stamps in designs that included the name Straits Settlements, and they were first issued in December 1867.

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Thank you Bart47 for that very nice post on Indonesian and Malaysian, with special detail on the words for stamp, together with the issues for the stamp centenaries.

Re Indonesian peranko, from the Dutch word francopostage paid: as you no doubt know, this was commonly used as a boxed cancellation, or part of a semicircular town cancellation, in the Netherlands in the 1850s and 1860s. Here are examples:

Netherlands 1852: &quot;Ordinary&quot; copies of<br />the first stamps: 15¢, 5¢, 10¢ Wilhelm III<br />each with strikes of the boxed FRANCO
Netherlands 1852: "Ordinary" copies of
the first stamps: 15¢, 5¢, 10¢ Wilhelm III
each with strikes of the boxed FRANCO
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Netherlands 1867: 10¢ Wilhelm III, with boxed FRANCO
Netherlands 1867: 10¢ Wilhelm III, with boxed FRANCO
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Haarlem semicircular date stamp<br />franco 13 Dec 1857, on 10¢ Wilhelm III.<br />(detail from the cover below)
Haarlem semicircular date stamp
franco 13 Dec 1857, on 10¢ Wilhelm III.
(detail from the cover below)
Cover to the Mayor of Monster,<br />in the Province of South Holland
Cover to the Mayor of Monster,
in the Province of South Holland
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Bart47 »

Thanks for that insight, Roger. Now that I look I see that I do have one or two Dutch stamps postmarked FRANCO.

BTW Dutch stamp catalogues sometimes use 'frankeerzegel' for 'definitive'. The logic of this escapes me.

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Examples of Maldivian Thaana Script cont.

In the thread on Maldives stamps I recently showed these revenues:
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Maldives, 1981: 10L and 15L revenues
Maldives, 1981: 10L and 15L revenues
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=17&t=95451&start=111
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I have some challenges with positioning the vowels directly over/under the consonants in Thaana script, so the following examples are slightly imperfect in this regard:

Inscription at top:
[އ ު = u][ނި = ni][ ެވެ = ve][ ެރ = re]
revenue
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[ރި = ri][ ާލް = lā]
laree
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The following Wikipedia post gives us a different Thaana spelling of laree:
The laari (Thaana: ލއާރއި) is a coin denomination issued by the Maldives as the subdenomination of the Maldivian rufiyaa since 1960.
Inscription at base:
ދިވެހިރާއްޖެ
[ ެއްޖ = jje][އް (gemination)][ރާ = rā][ހި = hi][ވެ = ve][ދި = di]
Republic of Maldives
Wikipedia wrote:Maldives /ˈmɔːldiːvz/, US: /ˈmɔːldaɪvz/; Dhivehi: ދިވެހިރާއްޖެ, romanized: Dhivehi Raajje.
Officially the Republic of Maldives, is a small archipelagic state in South Asia situated in the Indian Ocean.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maldives
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Bart47 »

Roger, that is a splendid old cover!
Alas, there is no Mayor of Monster any more. In 2004 Monster was combined with four other places to make a new local government unit called Westland. Monster's former town hall is being demolished.

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Australian Aboriginal Languages and Australia Post

Language and culture are inextricable. Language preserves culture, and language is part of culture. Worldwide awareness of this fundamental aspect of human societies has been gradually growing, and attracting positive actions. In particular, the neglect or in some cases active suppression of minority languages is being recognised as cultural oppression. Some positive reactions in various parts of the world include public revival of use of minority languages in the media, in public signage, in school curricula, in adult courses, and in public events and celebrations.

In Australia there has been a gradual revival of Aboriginal languages in recent times, though this is still sporadic, minor, and low key. A positive recent development in this "space" is a move by Australia Post to accommodate Aboriginal "country" names in postal addresses. A "country" name is intimately connected with the identity, culture and heritage of the Aboriginal people who belong to that place, and using the name contributes to respecting and preserving the language that carries those dimensions.

Australia Post addressing directions

The following screenshots show some of the information currently available on this AusPost website:
https://auspost.com.au/sending/check-sending-guidelines/addressing-guidelines
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Screen Shot 2021-07-19 at 1.23.27 pm.png
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Screen Shot 2021-07-19 at 1.24.21 pm.png
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Screen Shot 2021-07-19 at 1.25.36 pm.png
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Screen Shot 2021-07-19 at 1.26.04 pm.png
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The link to AIATSIS = Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, referred to above, is
https://aiatsis.gov.au/explore/map-indigenous-australia
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Screen Shot 2021-07-19 at 3.37.30 pm.png

For the east coast of Australia in the Newcastle-Sydney-Wollongong area, a detail of the map shows:
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Screen Shot 2021-07-19 at 3.35.58 pm.png
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I deduce that my residential and postal addresses (both in the greater Newcastle/Lake Macquarie area) are in Awabakal Country. (I knew this already, from other sources, but I didn't know it half a century ago, when my wife and I were first living in this area.)

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Maldivian Thaana Script revisited

Several earlier posts in this thread have discussed the Maldivian Thaana script, beginning at
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=833
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I have found another discussion of Thaana script, in this case the presentation by Omniglot:
https://omniglot.com/writing/thaana.htm
This treatment includes the dhivehi names of the characters, both in Thaana script and romanised script.
The Omniglot website even includes animations of how to write the Thaana characters. The symbols in square brackets are IPA = International Phonetic Alphabet symbols, representing the sounds corresponding to the Thaana characters.
___________________
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Here is the script itself. Remember that it is written from right to left, so the first character is haa, the second is shaviyani, and so on.
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Screen Shot 2021-07-21 at 9.57.46 pm.png
Screen Shot 2021-07-21 at 9.58.36 pm.png
Screen Shot 2021-07-21 at 10.00.12 pm.png
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Omniglot has the happy practice of using Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights tp give a sample text of each language it discusses.
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Screen Shot 2021-07-21 at 10.01.12 pm.png

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/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by steevh »

I was sorting out my Italian stamps the other day, and thought, why not? and went back to learning Italian.
Luckily its about the easiest foreign language to learn, especially if you already know another Romance language.
The country also has a fascinating history, which is good for both stamps and language-learning.

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Italian

One of the most helpful aspects of Italian is that the written language closely matches how it is pronounced, so beginners can pass confidently between written and aural forms of the language.

The linguistic terminology for this is phonemic orthography.
Wikipedia wrote:A phonemic orthography is an orthography (system for writing a language) in which the graphemes (written symbols) correspond to the phonemes (significant spoken sounds) of the language. Natural languages rarely have perfectly phonemic orthographies; a high degree of grapheme-phoneme correspondence can be expected in orthographies based on alphabetic writing systems, but they differ in how complete this correspondence is. English orthography, for example, is alphabetic but highly nonphonemic; it was once mostly phonemic during the Middle English stage, when the modern spellings originated, but spoken English changed rapidly while the orthography was much more stable, resulting in the modern nonphonemic situation. However, because of their relatively recent modernisations compared to English, the Romanian, Italian, Turkish, Spanish, Finnish, Czech, Latvian and Polish orthographic systems come much closer to being consistent phonemic representations.

In less formal terms, a language with a highly phonemic orthography may be described as having regular spelling. Another terminology is that of deep and shallow orthographies, in which the depth of an orthography is the degree to which it diverges from being truly phonemic. The concept can also be applied to nonalphabetic writing systems like syllabaries.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phonemic_orthography
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Among those whose first language is English it is easy to forget how much learning effort was needed to correlate spelling and pronunciation of words. A well-known bumper sticker is relevant: If you can read this, thank a teacher. Others learning to speak English as a second (or later) language as adults find its nonphonemic character requires a lot of attention to manage.

Also, it is not uncommon for those whose first language is English to want to pronounce words in other languages that use a form of the Roman/Latin alphabet as though the letters and words must be pronounced as in English. Each language has its own set of pronunciation conventions for its form of the Roman/Latin alphabet. When learning a new language, it is helpful to get acquainted early with the way the alphabet is pronounced in the new language.

Italian alphabet

Here, thanks to Omniglot, is a listing of the Italian alphabet, together with the names of the letters, and the pronunciation of the names in IPA = International Phonetic Alphabet. Don't be surprised that it only has 21 letters, all present in the English alphabet. The other letters would appear occasionally, in "foreign" [=non-Italian] words.

You will notice that I've included in the screenshot a view of a link with which you can listen to the alphabet recited by an Italian speaker. (Of course, you have to go to the Omniglot website to listen to that recording, but it only takes 17 seconds of your time, and I promise, you will find that it is very helpful.)

Screen Shot 2021-07-24 at 2.21.29 am.png
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Pronunciation using Google Translate

Did you know you can use Google Translate to help with pronunciation? For example, consider this Italian stamp. If you select ITALIAN for the left field of Google Translate, and ENGLISH for the right field, you can enter "cinque centesimi" in the left field, and get "five cents" in the right field. But the lower left corner of the left field also has a speaker icon. If you click on that speaker icon you will hear the words "cinque centesimi" pronounced authentically!
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Italy, 1863: 5 centesimi (SG10)
Italy, 1863: 5 centesimi (SG10)
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English speakers might think of the denomination as "chinkwey chentayzimi"
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RevRed+ »



Further Irish signs for RogerE.

Cashel King Cormac's GAA Club.<br />[Gaelic Athletic Association]
Cashel King Cormac's GAA Club.
[Gaelic Athletic Association]


Name of the ground/pitch.
Name of the ground/pitch.


Explanation for an old cottage.
Explanation for an old cottage.



https://www.cashel.ie/cashel-king-cormacs-gaa-club/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cashel_King_Cormacs_GAA
Red.

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Irish Gaelic

The homework/challenges by RevRed+ lead me to this list:
fáiltewelcome
cumannassociation
caisealcastle
riking [Compare with French roi]
páircpark
scóirto abandon, to disband
Elsewhere we have seen various place names beginning with Dún.
I see several possible meanings. Is "barracks" the most likely?
dúnbarracks; also: to close, to bar
.
Corrections/ improvements/ comments welcome!

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Number-O-Ne »

RogerE wrote:
24 Jul 2021 05:08

riking [Compare with French roi]

/RogerE :D
Also compare with Italian Re and Latin Rex

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by nigelc »

RogerE wrote:
24 Jul 2021 05:08
Irish Gaelic

The homework/challenges by RevRed+ lead me to this list:
fáiltewelcome
cumannassociation
caisealcastle
riking [Compare with French roi]
páircpark
scóirto abandon, to disband
Elsewhere we have seen various place names beginning with Dún.
I see several possible meanings. Is "barracks" the most likely?
dúnbarracks; also: to close, to bar
.
Corrections/ improvements/ comments welcome!

/RogerE :D
.
Hi Roger,

I hope you don't mind me sharing a few thoughts relating to dún and . :)

I associate the Irish dún or Scots Gaelic dùn with a fort or fortress, although I see other translations.

It is also cognate with Welsh din.

Two famous fortresses from Scotland's past were:

- Dùn Breatainn ("fortress of the Britons", Dumbarton) the stronghold on Dumbarton Rock that served as the capital of the Kingdom of Strathclyde, and

- Dùn Èideann (Edinburgh, Dunedin) the fortress and capital of the Kingdom of Gododdin.

I've given the Scots Gaelic names for these fortresses but these were both kingdoms whose language was originally Brythonic Celtic, related to Cumbric, Welsh etc.

When I was at school (a long time ago) my reference books said that the name Edinburgh derived from "Edwin's burh (burgh)" which seemed to me to make sense as the south east of Scotland later fell under the control of the English-speaking Kingdom of Northumbria but this is now seen as an old invention.

The word has its roots in the Proto-Indo-European word for king, reconstructed as h₃rḗǵs where h₃ represents a gutteral "laryngeal" sound, "h₃" as it is believed that there were two other similar laryngeal phonemes.

Descendants of this word have included:

- Gothic reiks, and the form -ric seen in personal names such as Theodoric, Childeric etc.

Many personal names in other Germanic languages seem to reflect something similar such as in Heinrich, Henrik, Richard etc., as do related words such as German Reich, Dutch rijk etc. with meanings such as empire or realm.

- Latin rex, reg- leading to "regina", English "regal" etc. and many words in modern Romance languages such as Italian re, Spanish rey Romanian rege, French roi etc.

- Sanskrit rāj-, rājan leading to rajah etc.

- Gaulish (reconstructed) *rīx and the related modern Irish , Scots Gaelic rìgh.
Nigel

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RevRed+ »



Very impressive Nigel and quite informative.

I would also associate Dún with Fort or Fortress.

Dictionary: Dún = 1. Fort; fortress. 2. Place of refuge, haven [dún long - haven for ships].
3. (Secure) residence, house. 4. Promontory fort; bluff

Not to be confused with Dún an doras = Close the door.


Roger,

As for "Scóir", I don't know what it means and it does not appear in my Irish - English dictionary. I notice the English translation on the sign also does not give an English translation.
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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RevRed+ »



And, I don't expect a translation of this monument, but you might like to see the style of lettering.

Should you wish a translation, I will try to provide one.

Commemorative monument
Commemorative monument


Commemorative monument
Commemorative monument

Red.

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Number-O-Ne »



RogerE wrote:
24 Jul 2021 04:02
Italian

One of the most helpful aspects of Italian is that the written language closely matches how it is pronounced, so beginners can pass confidently between written and aural forms of the language.

The linguistic terminology for this is phonemic orthography.

Also, it is not uncommon for those whose first language is English to want to pronounce words in other languages that use a form of the Roman/Latin alphabet as though the letters and words must be pronounced as in English. Each language has its own set of pronunciation conventions for its form of the Roman/Latin alphabet. When learning a new language, it is helpful to get acquainted early with the way the alphabet is pronounced in the new language.

/RogerE :D
One tip about how to distinguish a foreign Italian speaker from a native:

Italian language has a lot of double consonants. It's typical for many foreigners, but especially English speakers, to merge these double consonants. For example, spaghetti in the USA is pronounced with a single "T" sound, that may even soften down to a "D". Don't know about Australia (yet).

The proper way to pronounce double consonants in Italian is to stress them both individually. This rule is one of the two sources of the typical accent of Italian people when speaking English (The other source is almost all words ending with a vowel).

Bello (beautiful) both L sounds to be heard.

Italians joke a lot about a specific funny mistake made by foreigners:

Anno = Year. Both N sounds are to be pronounced. If these are merged:
Ano = Anus :?:

Good luck asking for a stracciatella, the special ice cream of the city of Bergamo



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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by andy66 »

Number-O-Ne wrote:
24 Jul 2021 09:30


RogerE wrote:
24 Jul 2021 04:02
Italian

One of the most helpful aspects of Italian is that the written language closely matches how it is pronounced, so beginners can pass confidently between written and aural forms of the language.

The linguistic terminology for this is phonemic orthography.

Also, it is not uncommon for those whose first language is English to want to pronounce words in other languages that use a form of the Roman/Latin alphabet as though the letters and words must be pronounced as in English. Each language has its own set of pronunciation conventions for its form of the Roman/Latin alphabet. When learning a new language, it is helpful to get acquainted early with the way the alphabet is pronounced in the new language.

/RogerE :D
One tip about how to distinguish a foreign Italian speaker from a native:

Italian language has a lot of double consonants. It's typical for many foreigners, but especially English speakers, to merge these double consonants. For example, spaghetti in the USA is pronounced with a single "T" sound, that may even soften down to a "D". Don't know about Australia (yet).

The proper way to pronounce double consonants in Italian is to stress them both individually. This rule is one of the two sources of the typical accent of Italian people when speaking English (The other source is almost all words ending with a vowel).

Bello (beautiful) both L sounds to be heard.

Italians joke a lot about a specific funny mistake made by foreigners:

Anno = Year. Both N sounds are to be pronounced. If these are merged:
Ano = Anus :?:

Good luck asking for a stracciatella, the special ice cream of the city of Bergamo


Yes, you introduced the issue of the so-called 'digraphs', that is two contiguous letters expressing one sound. Every language has its owns, the courious thing is that different digraphs have the same spelling in each language.
For example in Italian when we write ch we spell as k in English
'Ci' we spell as 'ch' in english!
'Ge' we spell as je in English 'as jet'
'Gi' is like Ji as jingle
'Gh' you pronounce as ge in get
All double consonants have their own spelling, tt, dd, cc, bb, ff etc.etc. that do not have a correspondence in English but work approximately as number one wrote.
Anyway, as noted above, every letter and every digraph in Italian is always spelled the same way, with very few exceptions. This is a great help for someone that has to learn Italian, but...there is the always the
other hand because we have a grammar quite more complicated, mostly with verbal forms and pronouns

PS: Stracciatella ice cream you can find it everywhere luckily...non only in Bergamo :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Thank you Number-O-Ne and andy66 for your helpful contributions about Italian. I hope that steevh finds them helpful and encouraging for his intention to learn some more Italian.

I too can join those who are very happy that stracciatella icecream [straccia — shreds] is widely available ("from better icecream vendors"). Yumm! :D

In catch up, I also thank RevRed+ for his recent Irish contributions to this thread :D

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Australian Indigenous Care for Country

In the Happy Day thread BigSaint has added an extensive and positive post reporting on turtle preservation measures being carried out on Cape York Peninsula by indigenous rangers and scientists.
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=6&t=82193&start=9557
Leading the program to save the turtles is Aak Puul Ngantam = APN, Cape York – a not-for-profit organisation run by the region’s Indigenous Southern Wik people. It has teamed up with Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation = CSIRO and Microsoft with support from the Australian Government’s National Environmental Science Program = NESP through its Northern Australia Environmental Resources Hub.

The Southern Wik people are the traditional owners of this part of Cape York. “Aak Puul Ngantam” translates as “our father’s father’s country” in the local Wik Mungkan language and refers to how they have lived on and cared for their ancestral homelands for many thousands of years.

APN Cape York and its corps of Indigenous rangers have been working with CSIRO researchers on initiatives that are culturally and environmentally sensitive as well as sustainable since 2012.
https://news.microsoft.com/apac/features/indigenous-knowledg ... cape-york/
.
Acknowledgement of Country

Reference to the map of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander countries indicates that the very northernmost portions of Cape York Peninsula are Yadhaigana Country (on the east side) and Anggamudi Country (on the west side).
.
Cape York Peninsula<br />Photo credit: Shutterstock
Cape York Peninsula
Photo credit: Shutterstock
A little further south, on the western side of the peninsula, is Wik country.
.
Detail from AIATSIS Map of Indigenous Australia
Detail from AIATSIS Map of Indigenous Australia
.
The APN Cape York website includes this information:

OUR COUNTRY

The community of Aurukun is situated in the Western Region of Cape York, Far North Queensland, Australia. Sitting between the Ward and Watson Rivers, approximately 100km south of Weipa and 630km northwest of Cairns, Aurukun is home to more than 1200 people.

Currently the area that APN Cape York helps native title owners manage extends south from the Watson River near Aurukun to the Kendall River around 80–100km south. Four ceremonial clan groups are identified as traditional owners and inhabitants for this region:

Apalech • Puch • Wanam • Winychanam

These four ritual clan groups traditionally spoke a number of Wik and Kugu languages. Today however, the traditional language is predominantly Wik Mungkan, which is the language group for the area of Aurukun. Wik and Kugu are intrinsically connected to our land. It holds all our stories, all our culture, and in fact, defines us as who we are.
https://apncapeyork.org/who-we-are/country
.
Wik-Mungkan Language
Wikipedia wrote:Wik-Mungkan, or Wik-Mungknh, is a Paman language spoken on the northern part of Cape York Peninsula of Queensland, Australia, by around 1,650 Wik-Mungkan people, and related peoples including the Wikalkan, Wik-Ngathana, Wikngenchera language groups. Wik Mungkan is healthier than most other languages on the peninsula, and is developing and absorbing other Aboriginal languages very quickly...

The English language has borrowed at least one word from Wik-Mungkan, that for the taipan, a species of venomous snake native to the region.

In 1962, Marie Godfrey and Barbara Sayers of the Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL) started linguistic and translation work in the Wik-Mungkan language in Aurukun. They began a dictionary file, and added to it over several years. Their work was continued and expanded by other SIL members, namely, Christine Kilham and Ann Eckert and was eventually published by SIL/AAB as the Dictionary and source book of the Wik-Mungkan language. The dictionary has been published online by AuSIL as the Wik Mungkan-English Interactive Dictionary.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wik_Mungkan_language
.
The link to the Wik Mungkan-English Interactive Dictionary is
.
http://ausil.org/Dictionary/Wik-Mungkan/lexicon/mainintro.htm
.
For example, the dictionary includes these entries, relevant to Aak Puul Ngantam = APN:
aak n. 1 • place; home; camp; ground; country. Aak thonamam wampinThey came from the same homeland. Ngay in nyiin-nyiinanga, aakangamI'm sitting here in our private home/place. Category: Geography.

puulwuut n. grandfather (father's father). See: Appendix I.

nganttam pn. ours (but not yours), from us, because of us.
There is an inclusive "we" and an exclusive "we". The latter appears in:
ngan pn. we (but not you).
nganam pn. we (but not you).
nganang pn. us.
ngan-ngan pn. it's up to us; this is our thing.
ngan-nganam pn. we by ourselves.
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

RevRed+ at Sat Jul 24, 2021 06:50:44 am posted an Irish inscription which began:

Screen Shot 2021-07-25 at 1.24.12 pm.png
.
I would like to take up the offer, and ask for a transliteration into Roman/Latin script, and an English translation — thanks Red! (I had to change the colour so it wouldn't look self-contradictory ;) )

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RevRed+ »



Hard to see clearly, but here we go............

"Tógadh an leacht seo i gcuimhne gac a fuair bás ar son na h-Éireann, ach go h-áirithe na h-óglaig a d'éag ar stailc ocrais i gcampa na Cise Fada idir Bealtaine agus Lúnasa 1981 agus go bhfuil a n-ainmneacha inscríofa anseo."

"This memorial was erected in memory of all who died for Ireland, especially the
[óglaig = plural of óglach. 1. lit. (a) Young Man, (b) (Young) warrior. 3. Mil: Volunteer. Óglaigh na hÉireann - the Irish Volunteers]
men who died on hunger strike in Long Kesh camp (prison) between May and August 1981, and whose names are inscribed here."

BANBA SQUARE MEMORIAL, Nenagh:
Description
Freestanding monument, comprising carved limestone base and granite pedestal with marble plaques on all four sides, erected c.1930, surmounted by life-sized figure of Christ, c.1955. Monument commemorates 1916 Easter Rising, War of Independence of 1921-23 and Long Kesh Hunger Strikes of 1981 and is surrounded by railings with limestone plinth.

Appraisal
This monument is erected to the memory of and inscribed with the names of local nationalists who died in various conflicts, and of the Long Kesh hunger strikers of 1981. It is a physical reminder of the troubled history of Ireland. It provides an artistic focal point for the town square and contributes to the historic quality and appearance of this public space and of Kickham Street. The engravings are fine examples of Gaelic lettering.
Last edited by RevRed+ on 26 Jul 2021 09:08, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RevRed+ »

RevRed+ wrote:
24 Jul 2021 07:50


And, I don't expect a translation of this monument, but you might like to see the style of lettering.

Should you wish a translation, I will try to provide one.


Image
This monument was originally erected in the 1930s and was intended to commemorate the Easter Rising in 1916. Somewhat unusual I would have thought to find additions in later years re later events.

This one says "It was the North Tipperary community and our friends everywhere that erected this memorial in fond memory of the men who died for the sake of the Irish Republic in 1916, and since then, and whose names are inscribed here."
Red.

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Thank you RevRed+. The monument is a lasting historical record and tribute, in particular, to the ten Irish patriots whose names are inscribed on it. The name Roibeand Mac Sandair (Bobby Sands M.P.) appears first on the list.

Irish
BealtaineMay
agusand
LúnasaAugust

d'éag[they] died, perished
aron
stailcstrike
ocrashunger
d'éag ar stailc ocraisdied on hunger strike
.
1981 Irish hunger strike
Wikipedia wrote:The 1981 hunger strike was the culmination of a five-year protest during The Troubles by Irish republican prisoners in Northern Ireland. The protest began as the blanket protest in 1976, when the British government withdrew Special Category Status (prisoner of war rather than criminal status) for convicted paramilitary prisoners. In 1978, the dispute escalated into the dirty protest, where prisoners refused to leave their cells to wash and covered the walls of their cells with excrement. In 1980, seven prisoners participated in the first hunger strike, which ended after 53 days.

The second hunger strike took place in 1981 and was a showdown between the prisoners and the Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher. One hunger striker, Bobby Sands, was elected as a member of parliament during the strike, prompting media interest from around the world. The strike was called off after ten prisoners had starved themselves to death, including Sands, whose funeral was attended by 100,000 people. The strike radicalised Irish nationalist politics and was the driving force that enabled Sinn Féin to become a mainstream political party.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1981_Irish_hunger_strike
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Maldivian Thaana Script revisited
.
In the thread on Maldives philately I have now added a post about a new branch of the Atoll Post, opened on 31 Mar 2021, including this formal photograph of the official opening.
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=17&t=95451&start=153

.
Maldives: Atoll Post branch in H.A. Dhidhdhoo, official opening, 31 Mar 2021.
Maldives: Atoll Post branch in H.A. Dhidhdhoo, official opening, 31 Mar 2021.
.
This presents another opportunity for practising the Thaana script. See the introductory posts at and near
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=834
.
Here is an enlargement of the start of the wall sign (apologies for the fuzziness):
.
Dhidhdhoo Post
Dhidhdhoo Post
.
[އް ޫދ — dhdhoo] [އް — (gemination)] [ދި — dhi]
[º‎ޓ — t] [ސް — s] [ ެޕ — po]

Note: the vowel markings in [އް ޫދ] and [º‎ޓ] should be placed directly over the consonants, but I couldn't quite achieve this in my typesetting! The Thaana script for "Post" is more accurately rendered in the logo:
.
defaultog.png
.
Here the Thaana script for "post" is a transliteration of the English word "post". In the same way, the Thaana script in the current version of the logo for Maldives Post is a transliteration of "Maldives Post".
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Duolingo

Duolingo is an online language teaching/learning site. Readers might be impressed with the range of languages being offered, and the numbers of registered learners for the various languages.
.
Screen Shot 2021-08-03 at 3.10.59 pm.png
Screen Shot 2021-08-03 at 3.12.34 pm.png
Screen Shot 2021-08-03 at 3.13.05 pm.png
Screen Shot 2021-08-03 at 3.13.22 pm.png
Screen Shot 2021-08-03 at 3.13.45 pm.png
https://www.duolingo.com/courses
.
Duolingo describes its approach to language teaching/learning as follows:

Screen Shot 2021-08-03 at 3.26.37 pm.png
Screen Shot 2021-08-03 at 3.26.56 pm.png
Screen Shot 2021-08-03 at 3.27.14 pm.png
Screen Shot 2021-08-03 at 3.27.55 pm.png
.
https://www.duolingo.com/approach
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Japanese Census

Today (10 Aug 2021) is Census Day in Australia. Our member Ubobo.R.O. has helped us celebrate this Happy Day with a post including the 1965 Japanese Census Day stamp:
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=6&t=82193&start=9778
.
Japan, 1965: 10th National Census commemorative
Japan, 1965: 10th National Census commemorative
.
Most of the text at the base of this stamp is:
.
Japanese
第10回国勢調査
dai 10-kai kokuzeichōsa
10th national census

Pronunciation
第10回
dai jū-kai
.
I wasn't able to understand the last two characters which complete the nine character explanatory text.
Can any reader help, please?

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by turtle-bienhoa »

The last two characters (記念, kinen) mean "anniversary" or "commemoration". That means the entire phrase can be translated to "In commemoration of the 10th national census".
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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Thank you Tuấn = turtle-bienhoa, just the help that was needed!

Thanks to your helpful translation, I tried some "reverse engineering" using Google Translate.
It yielded the following Japanese phrases and transliterations. Because the phrases in Japanese characters are in kanji, I also used Google Translate for the corresponding Chinese phrases and transliterations. As an unanticipated subtlety, I found that the Chinese character for niàn is slightly different in traditional and simplified forms in Google Translate, but when pasted into Stampboards the traditional character transformed into the simplified version (illustrated below) — an exercise in "spot the difference"‽

Japanese
記念
kinen
commemoration

記念日
kinenbi
anniversary [day]

Chinese [simplified], [traditional]
周年纪念日 = 週年紀念日
zhōunián jìniàn rì
[annual] anniversary [day]

Chinese [simplified]
纪念
jìniàn
commemoration
.
* Note: When I copied the traditional Chinese characters from Google Translate, and pasted them into this Stampboards post, the pasted version showed up as 纪念. This appears to be more than just a matter of differences in font. Perhaps Tuấn = turtle-bienhoa can comment?
.
Chinese [traditional] (taken from Google Translate)
.
Screen Shot 2021-08-12 at 9.57.33 pm.png
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by nigelc »

.
Hi Roger,

The Wiktionary entry for 記念 says the following for its use in Chinese:
.
kinen_Chinese.GIF
.
and the following for its use in Japanese:
.
kinen_Japanese.GIF
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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Wiktionary

Thank you Nigel = nigelc for your post using Wiktionary.
A nice linguistic resource :D
https://www.wiktionary.org/
.
Memo to self: Use Wiktionary more often!
.
Screen Shot 2021-08-13 at 12.26.41 pm.png
.
Screen Shot 2021-08-13 at 12.30.16 pm.png
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

In the Happy Day thread there has been some discussion en passant about railway parcel stamps and cancellations. A relevant postcard shown there motivates me to add a brief linguistic note here.
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=6&t=82193&start=9841
.
Germany, 1934: lettercard with oval railway post cancel <br />Z.1171, Augsburg-Wohlheim. -Oct 1934<br />Z. {Zug] — train
Germany, 1934: lettercard with oval railway post cancel
Z.1171, Augsburg-Wohlheim. -Oct 1934
Z. {Zug] — train
.

The manuscript [Handschrift] address merits transliteration:

Hochwohlgeboren*
Frau Marg. von Schad
Bühl b. [=bis — as far as/up to] Kochel **

Fraktur printed equivalent
ℌ𝔬𝔠𝔥𝔴𝔬𝔥𝔩𝔤𝔢𝔟𝔬𝔯𝔢𝔫
𝔉𝔯𝔞𝔲 𝔐𝔞𝔯𝔤. 𝔳𝔬𝔫 𝔖𝔠𝔥𝔞𝔡
𝔅ü𝔥𝔩 𝔟. 𝔎𝔬𝔠𝔥𝔢𝔩
Notes

* Hochwohlgeboren
Wikipedia wrote:Hochwohlgeboren ist eine Anrede für ein Mitglied des niedrigen Adelsstandes. ... Mit der Anrede war das Recht verbunden, sein Familienwappen zu vererben und eigene Ländereien frei zu verwalten.

Hochwohlgeboren [= "Highly born"} is a salutation for a member of the lower nobility. ... The salutation was associated with the right to inherit one's family coat of arms and to freely manage one's own lands.
** The distance from Bühl to Kochel is about 390lm:
.
Bühl to Kochel<br />Acknowledgement: Google maps
Bühl to Kochel
Acknowledgement: Google maps
Note on Fraktur script
From the late 18th century to the late 19th century, Fraktur was progressively replaced by Antiqua as a symbol of the classicist age and emerging cosmopolitanism in most of the countries in Europe that had previously used Fraktur. This move was hotly debated in Germany, where it was known as the Antiqua–Fraktur dispute. The shift affected mostly scientific writing in Germany, whereas most belletristic literature and newspapers continued to be printed in Fraktur.

The Fraktur typefaces remained in use in Nazi Germany, when they were initially represented as true German script; official Nazi documents and letterheads employed the font, and the cover of Hitler's Mein Kampf used a hand-drawn version of it. However, more modernised fonts of the Gebrochene Grotesk type such as Tannenberg were in fact the most popular typefaces in Nazi Germany, especially for running text as opposed to decorative uses such as in titles... On January 3, 1941, the Nazi Party ended this controversy by switching to international scripts such as Antiqua.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fraktur
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by nigelc »

.
Hi Roger,

This is an interesting cover.

I have a couple of suggestions:

1. I wonder if the postmark is a for a rail route from Augsburg to Weilheim?

I don't know if there was a line or service between these two places.

2. I expect that "Bühl b. Kochel" is "Bühl bei Kochel", a hamlet or location very close to Kochel.

The word Bühl means hill.
.
Augsburg_to_Kochel.GIF
.
Weilheim is the black circle on the marked route north east of Peißenberg.
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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by nigelc »

.
Hi Roger,

I've had another look at the address and I think it's Bichl b. Kochel (rather than Bühl b. Kochel).

Bichl's population was 686 in 1925 and 868 in 1939 according to Wikipedia.

Here's Bichl in the context of a possible route:
.
Augsburg_to_Kochel_2.GIF
Nigel

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Bart47 »

CIRCUMFIXES AND CROWNS

In 1957 all the British-dominated territories in Malaya, with the exception of Singapore, came together in one independent country. From then until 1963 most of the country’s stamps bore the words Persekutuan Tanah Melayu.
1x.jpg
1961. Installation of the third King

Tanah Melayu means Malay Lands, but what of Persekutuan? The word has nothing to do with persecution; it means Federation. A minority of issues used English instead: Federation of Malaya. In 1963 the federation was expanded with more territories and became Malaysia, but there was no mention of the word Persekutuan on any of the many stamps that followed.

English has some standard word-making prefixes (eg in + expensive = inexpensive; in + variable = invariable) and suffixes (eg censor + ship = censorship, friend + ship = friendship). Indonesian/Malaysian has prefixes and suffixes too, but also circumfixes, which are like pairs of bookends. Persekutuan on the stamp consists of per + sekutu + an. Sekutu means ally and when bookended by per and an the word which means federation is formed. Other examples of this standard per + .. + an circumfix are perjalanan meaning journey, made by bookending jalan meaning road; and pertanyaan meaning question, by bookending tanya, the verb to ask.

BTW The last letter of the front bookend, can change or be dropped depending on the first letter of the word it encloses. Thus pengadilan meaning law court is made by bookending adil meaning just (adil begins with a; this causes per > peng); pekerjaan meaning occupation is made by bookending kerja, the verb to work (kerja begins with k, this causes per > pe). Scholars of linguistics describe such phenomena as morphophonemic.

The Indonesian/Malaysian language has one other standard circumfix with the same function of building nouns: ke + .. + an. For example, kerajaan meaning kingdom is made by bookending raja meaning king; keturunan meaning lineage is made by bookending turun meaning to descend.

Is there some logic to the use of these two different noun-making circumfixes? Does one of them convey some slightly different element of meaning from the other? No. The word for a mountain range is pegunungan, made by using the per and an bookends to enclose gunung meaning mountain, while the word for an archipelago is kepulauan made by using the ke and an bookends to enclose pulau meaning island. There seems no good reason why the language uses pegunungan rather than *kegunungan but kepulauan rather than *pepulauan.

*

The constitution of present-day Malaysia is much the same as that of the pre-1963 Federation of Malaya. The country contains nine states that each have a hereditary ruler, mostly with the title of sultan. This ruler has the role of a constitutional monarch in the affairs of their state, and so exercises some formal, though limited, power. In Indonesia, by contrast, some of the descendants of the former royal rulers of some parts of the country may still be prominent culturally, but they have no formal power.

Every five years (or earlier if a vacancy occurs through death or abdication) the nine rulers elect one of themselves as a new head of state of the whole country. In practice, the rulers’ voting is usually determined by a certain rota which ensures that each state gets its turn at the job; thus the first head of state was from the state of Negeri Sembilan and so was the tenth; the second head was from Selangor and so was the eleventh; and so on. If, however, the ruler of the next state according to the rota is generally considered to be particularly unsuitable – perhaps because of great age or a scandalous private life – then the election procedure makes it possible to pass over him.

The title of the head of state is Yang di-Pertuan Agong, which means ‘He who is esteemed as supreme lord’. English-speakers tend to reduce that whole mouthful to the word King. Despite the grand title this king has much the same limited powers as a constitutional monarch in Europe. However, he does have the power to reprieve criminals or reduce sentences. Occasionally the world becomes aware of this when a foreigner is condemned to death for drug offences and makes a final appeal for clemency to the king.

Since 1957 it has been the custom to make a new stamp issue (one stamp or a set) whenever a new king of the country is installed, ie roughly every five years. Also, albeit less consistently, there has been an issue for the installation of a new sultan in one of the states. Between 1957 and the present, a period of 64 years, there have been 14 king-making stamp issues and 15 sultan-making issues. There have also been two issues commemorating an anniversary of the installation of a long-serving sultan

So far there have been 16 kings since the office was set up. The first king produced by the constitution appeared on an issue commemorating the first anniversary of independence, and the second king died before there was time for him to appear on a stamp issue. For all the other 14 kings the installation has been commemorated with a stamp issue.
2x.jpg
1958. First King. Anniversary of Independence

3.jpg
Installation of some of the Kings:1966, 1976, 1994

The sultans of the states have not been represented on stamps quite so thoroughly as the kings of the country. For example, the installation as Raja of the present ruler of the state of Perlis in 2001 did not result in a stamp. This may well be related to the fact that through the working of the rota system this ruler had progressed within a year to become King of the whole country, and so he appeared on the king-making stamp. Much the same happened to the present Sultan of Pahang. He became Sultan in 2019, and within a month was elevated to King since the previous holder had abdicated unexpectedly and it was Pahang’s turn to provide the next King.
4x.jpg
Installation of Kings from Perlis (2002), Pahang (2019)
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Back in 1896 stamps from the state of Johor were overprinted kemahkotaan to celebrate the coronation of a new sultan. The word kemahkotaan meaning coronation is made by using the ke + .. + an circumfix to enclose mahkota meaning crown.
5x.jpg
1896. The Johor overprint: kemahkotaan

The next action on this front came in 1961 with the stamp at the top of this article for the installation of the third king. But this does not contain kemahkotaan; instead it uses pertabalan, a word where the other noun-making circumfix per + .. + an encloses tabal, the verb for installing somebody in some important function. Why do that king-making stamp and all the others without exception use pertabalan and not kemahkotaan as on that Johor sultan-making stamp of 1896?

That question is associated with another: Why is it that the sultan-making stamps differ? Some, though not all, since 1957 use pertabalan like the king-making stamps but some use kemahkotaan as in the Johor issue of 1896.

6.jpg
Sultan-making issues with pertabalan: Perak 1963; Negeri Sembilan 1968; Trengganu 1999

7.jpg
Sultan-making issues with kemahkotaan: Selangor 1961; Kelantan 1980; Johor 2015


Here is an explanation of the relationship between pertabalan and kemahkotaan :
• Pertabalan applies to any ceremony for installing a person in a royal function. It does not necessarily imply that a crown is used. Kemahkotaan applies to such a ceremony if and only if a crown is used. Thus Pertabalan is the more general term. Every Kemahkotaan is a Pertabalan, but not every Pertabalan is a Kemahkotaan.
• For the ceremony of installing the King of Malaysia there is regalia but it does not include a crown. As shown on a number of stamps the king does wear a royal headdress, but, though stylish, it is essentially a hat made of cloth with jewels attached rather than a crown.
• Consequently all the 14 king-making stamp issues use the word pertabalan.
• Some of the states actually possess a crown which is used at the installation of their sultan, and some do not.
• The states of Johor, Kelantan and Selangor do possess a crown for their sultan, and their sultan-making stamps use kemahkotaan.
• The states of Kedah, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak and Perlis don’t possess a crown and so their sultan-making stamps use pertabalan.
• The state of Trengganu does possess a crown but its sultan-making stamp of 1999 (pictured above) uses pertabalan. This seems an anomaly.

That little analysis fits the facts about stamps, regalia and vocabulary, except in the case of Trengganu. Perhaps somebody was careless and used the broad term pertabalan that is found on all the king-making stamps and also on many of the sultan-making stamps when kemahkotaan would have been more exact.

How come four of the states on the Malay peninsula today possess a crown and five do not? It seems that for much of their history none of the states had a crown, even though some states elsewhere in the archipelago that were culturally similar possessed a crown for many centuries. For example, the crown of Sumedang in West Java is said to have been made in the time of a Hindu king of Pajajaran who reigned 1357-1371 and to have been brought to Sumedang in 1578 by fleeing royalty as the Pajajaran kingdom was destroyed by its enemies. The crown of the kingdom of Gowa in south-west Sulawesi is said to have been made in the 13th century and to have been worn by 36 kings in turn. Comparison with the history of the English monarchy shows that this count makes sense.

8.jpg
The crowns of Sumedang (left) and Gowa (right)

The states of the Malayan peninsula have no crowns that are anything like that venerable. The oldest is the crown of Johor which was made in London in 1886. The sultan of the time was an Anglophile and the crown’s design resembles the St Edward’s Crown of the English monarchs, although it includes Islamic crescent moons and stars.
9.jpg
The crown of Johor

Probably inspired by Johor, the Selangor sultans obtained a crown in 1903; Trengganu followed in 1920 and Kelantan in 1921. They are all different but closer to European models than to the ancient crowns of other parts of the archipelago.
10.jpg
The crowns of three other states: Selangor; Trengganu; Kelantan
*

So far this text has been about Malaysia and linguistic discussion has been about the Malaysian form of the Indonesian/Malaysian language. Just as there are differences of vocabulary between the British and American forms of English, so there are differences between the Indonesian and Malaysian forms of the common language. It so happens that this semantic field of the installation of royalty contains some interesting differences.

The text at the start of this article implied that one or other of the two noun-making circumfixes was normally used for a certain meaning, but not both; thus kepulauan exists and *pepulauan does not. The word for coronation built from mahkota meaning crown seems to be an exceptional case. Kemahkotaan and pemahkotaan both exist. However, kemahkotaan, which is found on the stamps, is the more common. A Google search yields six times as many hits for kemahkotaan as for pemahkotaan. I haven’t found evidence of any difference in meaning between the two forms, but there may well be a difference of usage. I suspect that pemahkotaan is normally used in Indonesian and kemahkotaan in Malaysian. However, I haven’t found enough evidence to be really sure about that.

The word pertabalan – which appears on the majority of the stamps discussed here – exists in Malaysian but not Indonesian. In Indonesian the equivalent of pertabalan is penobatan. Penobatan is built from the verb nobat, to install somebody with ceremony. (BTW Penobatan is not to be confused with pengobatan, meaning medical treatment, from obat, meaning medicine.). Indonesia differs from Malaysia in that the heirs of the old sultanates no longer have any formal place in the country’s constitution. Nevertheless some elaborate ceremonies are still held in a few places and penobatan is the word normally used. To see this, search YouTube on penobatan together with Cirebon or penobatan together with Yogyakarta, for example.

In any situation where a speaker of British English says autumn it is pretty certain that a speaker of American English will say fall; where pavement, sidewalk; where lorry, truck; where nappy, diaper; and so on. These are pairs of equivalent terms in those two forms of the English language. But the relationship between Malaysian and Indonesian terminology in this semantic area is more complicated than that.

In Malaysian usage:
• The word pertabalan applies to any royal installation ceremony.
• If and only if a royal installation ceremony involves use of a crown (ie it is literally a coronation) then kemahkotaan is a more precise term to use than pertabalan.

But in Indonesian usage:
• The word penobatan applies to any royal installation ceremony.
• There is no separate word which is restricted to a royal installation ceremony that involves use of a crown (ie it is literally a coronation).
• The word pemahkotaan meaning coronation does exist but is not normally used for ceremonies within Indonesia (eg at Cirebon or Yogyakarta). As a YouTube search demonstrates, it is normally applied to coronations elsewhere, eg in Malaysia or in England in 1953.

The above seems to make a coherent little model that fits the observed facts. Yet it is not rock-solid knowledge. I worked it out by merging the evidence of the stamps and the regalia with some input from native speakers and definitions and examples from online dictionaries and analysis of Google and YouTube search results, and applying some deduction. I’d be happy to hear from anybody who is in a position to propose an improved model.

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Thank you nigelc for your two posts commenting on the German lettercard first shown in the thread at
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=882
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Yes, I think you have successfully picked up the important correction that the destination is actually Bichl b.[=bei] Kochel. The fact that Bichl is indeed in the neighbourhood of Kochel justifies reading the abbreviation "b." as bei [= near] rather than bis [= up to, as far as] — the latter was my best guess when I thought the address was Bühl b. Kochel, for those two towns are several hundred kilometres apart.

Another correction from nigelc applies to my attempt to discern the part of the oval railway post cancellation that is interrupted by the perforations and black mourning frame of the stamp. My reading as "Wohlheim" probably should have been "Wahlheim", but Nigel's reading as "Weilheim" seems likely. Good work!

Further relevant information might have to await input by a well-informed German railway enthusiast. :D

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Thanks also to Bart47 for the extensive, thoughtful and well-illustrated post about Malaysian and Indonesian, especially in relation to the circumfixes ke — an and per — an.

May I add, for continuity, that your post is actually adding to several recent posts which began with
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=839
This was followed with several more, starting at
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=843
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My other constructive mild criticism of your post is that using the control "centre" positions images more pleasantly in the middle of the screen, rather than off to the left. For example:
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Malay Federation, 1961: <br />Installation of the third King
Malay Federation, 1961:
Installation of the third King
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/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Eli has shown some attractive engraved Cambodian stamps in a recent post:
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=17&t=16852&p=7310804#p7310804
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Cambodia Mi 253.jpg
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Cambodia Mi 254.jpg
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Cambodia Mi 255.jpg
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The value numerals on these stamps are in Western Arabic digits on the right, and in Khmer digits on the left.
Here are the Khmer digits in four different fonts, together with the Western Arabic digits.
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Khmer digits
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4_fonts_of_Khmer_Numbers.png
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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khmer_numerals
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Khmer, Thai and Lao digits compared
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Wikipedia wrote:As both Thai and Lao scripts are derived from Old Khmer, their modern forms still bear many resemblances to the latter, demonstrated in the following table:
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Screen Shot 2021-08-17 at 1.17.32 am.png
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Naming the Khmer digits 0 to 5
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Screen Shot 2021-08-17 at 1.23.39 am.png
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Notes:
• The transliterations are IPA = International Phonetic Alphabet; UNGEGN = system used for United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names; ALA-LC = system used by American Library Association and Library of Congress.
• 0 is named soun, from Sanskrit śūnya.
• The number three is considered lucky in Thailand, but unlucky in Cambodia, where "taking a picture with three people in it is considered bad luck, as it is believed that the person situated in the middle will die an early death"
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Naming the Khmer numbers 6 to 20
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Wikipedia wrote:The numbers from 6 to 9 may be constructed by adding any number between 1 and 4 to the base number 5 (ប្រាំ), so that 7 is literally constructed as 5 plus 2. Beyond that, Khmer uses a decimal base, so that 14 is constructed as 10 plus 4, rather than 2 times 5 plus 4; and 16 is constructed as 10+5+1.
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Screen Shot 2021-08-17 at 1.39.12 am.png
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Note:
• The "five one", "five two",... structure of 6-9 is called a biquinary system.

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Bart47 »

Thanks, Roger.
If you knew how much effort it cost me to get the system to accept those images in the right places within the text! I almost gave up.

Now that we're here:
1 You mention the centring feature for an image. I can't work out how to use it. I don’t see any mention of it in the instructions about posting an image in the Roll Call section.
2 I can't find a way of managing the size of the images. I’d have liked to get more consistency of image size in that post just now but found no way of doing that.
3 Is there any personal messaging feature on this board?

Maybe you can help me on these. Thanks.

Bart

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Hello Bart47, and other readers of this thread. The thread about posting images seems to be the best place to discuss those posting techniques, so I've added my suggestions there. Click on this link to go there:
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=1&t=90770&p=7313504#p7313504
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I've just e-mailed Bart47 with a "deads up" to advise him that I've made this post! ;)

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Khmer = Cambodian

The Khmer digits were recently discussed in this thread, so it's appropriate to add some posts about the Khmer language and script.
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=888
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Cambodia, 1961: Peace minisheet (SG MS 114ab)
Cambodia, 1961: Peace minisheet (SG MS 114ab)
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Screen Shot 2021-08-21 at 4.52.51 pm.png
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Khmer: /kmɛər, kəˈmɛər/; ខ្មែរ, Khmêr [kʰmae]) is an Austroasiatic language spoken by the Khmer people, and the official and national language of Cambodia. With approximately 16 million speakers, it is the second most widely spoken Austroasiatic language (after Vietnamese). Khmer has been influenced considerably by Sanskrit and Pali, especially in the royal and religious registers, through Hinduism and Buddhism. It is also the earliest recorded and earliest written language of the Mon–Khmer family, predating Mon and Vietnamese, due to Old Khmer being the language of the historical empires of Chenla, Angkor and, presumably, their earlier predecessor state, Funan.

The vast majority of Khmer speakers speak Central Khmer, the dialect of the central plain where the Khmer are most heavily concentrated. Within Cambodia, regional accents exist in remote areas but these are regarded as varieties of Central Khmer. Two exceptions are the speech of the capital, Phnom Penh, and that of the Khmer Khe in Stung Treng province, both of which differ sufficiently enough from Central Khmer to be considered separate dialects of Khmer.

Outside of Cambodia, three distinct dialects are spoken by ethnic Khmers native to areas that were historically part of the Khmer Empire. The Northern Khmer dialect is spoken by over a million Khmers in the southern regions of Northeast Thailand and is treated by some linguists as a separate language. Khmer Krom, or Southern Khmer, is the first language of the Khmer of Vietnam while the Khmer living in the remote Cardamom mountains speak a very conservative dialect that still displays features of the Middle Khmer language.
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Geographical distribution of Khmer dialects
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Screen Shot 2021-08-21 at 4.50.25 pm.png
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Khmer is primarily an analytic, isolating language. There are no inflections, conjugations or case endings. Instead, particles and auxiliary words are used to indicate grammatical relationships. General word order is subject–verb–object [= SVO], and modifiers follow the word they modify. Classifiers appear after numbers when used to count nouns, though not always so consistently as in languages like Chinese. In spoken Khmer, topic-comment structure is common and the perceived social relation between participants determines which sets of vocabulary, such as pronouns and honorifics, are proper.

Khmer differs from neighbouring languages such as Thai, Burmese, Lao, and even Vietnamese which is in the same family in that it is not a tonal language. Words are stressed on the final syllable, hence many words conform to the typical Mon–Khmer pattern of a stressed syllable preceded by a minor syllable. The language has been written in the Khmer script, an abugida descended from the Brahmi script via the southern Indian Pallava script, since at least the seventh century. The script's form and use has evolved over the centuries; its modern features include subscripted versions of consonants used to write clusters and a division of consonants into two series with different inherent vowels. Approximately 79% of Cambodians are able to read Khmer.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khmer_language
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/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Khmer Script: Introduction
The Khmer script, Khmer: អក្សរខ្មែរ, Ăksâ Khmê [ʔaʔsɑː kʰmae], is an abugida = alphasyllabary script used to write the Khmer language, the official language of Cambodia. It is also used to write Pali in the Buddhist liturgy of Cambodia and Thailand.

Khmer is written from left to right. Words within the same sentence or phrase are generally run together with no spaces between them. Consonant clusters within a word are "stacked", with the second (and occasionally third) consonant being written in reduced form under the main consonant. Originally there were 35 consonant characters, but modern Khmer uses only 33. Each character represents a consonant sound together with an inherent vowel, either â or ô. In many cases, in the absence of another vowel mark, the inherent vowel is to be pronounced after the consonant.

There are some independent vowel characters, but vowel sounds are more commonly represented as dependent vowels, additional marks accompanying a consonant character, and indicating what vowel sound is to be pronounced after that consonant (or consonant cluster). Most dependent vowels have two different pronunciations, depending in most cases on the inherent vowel of the consonant to which they are added.

There are also a number of diacritics used to indicate further modifications in pronunciation. The script also includes its own numerals and punctuation marks.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khmer_script
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Cambodia, 1956: Coronation set
Cambodia, 1956: Coronation set


The Khmer character set

I plan to show, in a subsequent post, the Khmer characters with their phonetic values, but in this introductory post I choose to show the full character set (as organised in the Unicode Consortium code format*):
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Screen Shot 2021-08-21 at 5.36.36 pm.png
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• First 35 characters are the consonants, including the two obsolete characters.
• Next 15 characters are the independent vowels.
• Next 16 characters are the dependent vowels.
• Next 12 characters are the diacritics.
• Next seven characters are the punctuation marks.
• Next the riel currency symbol; a rare sign corresponding to the Sanskrit avagraha; and a mostly obsolete version of the vĭréam diacritic
• The U+17Ex series characters are the Khmer numerals.
• The U+17Fx series contains variant numerals used in divination lore.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khmer_script
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*Note on Unicode:
Unicode is a universal character encoding standard that assigns a code to every character and symbol in every language in the world. Since no other encoding standard supports all languages, Unicode is the only encoding standard that ensures that you can retrieve or combine data using any combination of languages.
https://webfocusinfocenter.informationbuilders.com/wfappent/ ... s_7720.htm
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/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Khmer Script
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The set of Khmer characters was shown in the Unicode table of the previous post. Now is the time to discuss the characters individually, and note their pronunciation.
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Screen Shot 2021-08-25 at 1.03.17 am.png
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khmer_script
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Khmer: អក្សរខ្មែរ, Ăksâ Khmê [ʔaʔsɑː kʰmae]

Recall that the Khmer script is an abugida (alphasyllabary) script used to write the Khmer language, the official language of Cambodia.

Khmer consonants
Wikipedia wrote:The consonants and their subscript forms are listed in the following table. Usual phonetic values are given using the International Phonetic Alphabet = IPA ...

The spoken name of each consonant letter is its value together with its inherent vowel. Transliterations are given using the transcription system of the Geographic Department of the Cambodian Ministry of Land Management and Urban Planning = GDCMLMUP [GD] used by the Cambodian government and the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names = UNGEGN [UN] system.
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Screen Shot 2021-08-25 at 1.16.15 am.png
Screen Shot 2021-08-25 at 1.17.40 am.png
Screen Shot 2021-08-25 at 1.19.01 am.png
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Dependent vowels
Wikipedia wrote:Most Khmer vowel sounds are written using dependent, or diacritical, vowel symbols, known in Khmer as ស្រៈនិស្ស័យ srăk nissăy or ស្រៈផ្សំ srăk phsâm ("connecting vowel"). These can only be written in combination with a consonant (or consonant cluster). The vowel is pronounced after the consonant (or cluster), even though some of the symbols have graphical elements which appear above, below or to the left of the consonant character.

Most of the vowel symbols have two possible pronunciations, depending on the inherent vowel of the consonant to which it is added... Absence of a dependent vowel (or diacritic) often implies that a syllable-initial consonant is followed by the sound of its inherent vowel...

The spoken name of each dependent vowel consists of the word ស្រៈ srăk [sraʔ]("vowel") followed by the vowel's a-series value preceded by a glottal stop (and also followed by a glottal stop in the case of short vowels).
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Screen Shot 2021-08-25 at 1.26.10 am.png
Screen Shot 2021-08-25 at 1.26.52 am.png
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Independent vowels
Wikipedia wrote:Independent vowels are non-diacritical vowel characters that stand alone (i.e. without being attached to a consonant symbol). In Khmer they are called ស្រៈពេញតួ srăk pénhtuŏ, which means "complete vowels"...

The independent vowels are used in a small number of words, mostly of Indic origin, and consequently there is some inconsistency in their use and pronunciations. However, a few words in which they occur are used quite frequently. These include: ឥឡូវ [ʔəjləw] "now", ឪពុក [ʔəwpuk] "father", ឬ [rɨː] "or", ឮ [lɨː] "hear", ឲ្យ [ʔaoj] "give, let", ឯង [ʔaeŋ] "oneself, I, you", ឯណា [ʔaenaː] "where".

Independent vowel letters are named similarly to the dependent vowels, with the word ស្រៈ srăk [sraʔ] ("vowel") followed by the principal sound of the letter... followed by an additional glottal stop after a short vowel.
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Screen Shot 2021-08-25 at 1.57.18 am.png
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/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Khmer Script revisited

Here is another presentation of the Khmer script, this time courtesy of Omniglot.
https://omniglot.com/writing/khmer.htm
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In this presentation I include four special groups (diacritics, ligatures, numerals and punctuation) that I omitted from the previous post, based on the Wikipedia discussion:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khmer_script
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In this case, I find the Omniglot presentation more user-friendly.
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_____________ o0o _____________
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Screen Shot 2021-08-26 at 8.45.45 pm.png
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Screen Shot 2021-08-26 at 8.39.08 pm.png
Screen Shot 2021-08-26 at 8.39.56 pm.png
Screen Shot 2021-08-26 at 8.40.36 pm.png
Screen Shot 2021-08-26 at 8.41.07 pm.png
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/RogerE :D

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RogerE
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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Khmer Phrases

The Omniglot website for Khmer includes some sample phrases
https://omniglot.com/language/phrases/khmer.php
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I show a selection of them here because they offer numerous examples on which to practice character identification/ transliteration/ pronunciation of the script.
______________________
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Khmer (ភាសាខ្មែរ) (phiəsaa khma) [pʰiə.ˈsaː kʰmae]
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frm = formal; inf = informal
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/RogerE :D

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RogerE
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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

English — some standout words

In another thread Puffin posted a quiz question asking for the longest English word with only one vowel.
Number-O-Ne posted the intended answer, which is the 9 letter word strengths, with e as its only vowel.
By interpreting the question differently, allowing multiple occurrences of a single vowel, BigSaint proposed the 9 letter word beekeeper.

Here are some related linguistic topics.

ª What is the longest English word with no repeated letter?
The longest words with no repeated letters are dermatoglyphics and uncopyrightable.

ª What is the longest English word using each vowel once, in alphabetic order?
The longest words recorded in the Oxford English Dictionary = OED with each vowel only once, and in order, are the 12 letter words abstemiously, affectiously, and tragediously.
Facetiously is among the few other words directly attested in OED with single occurrences of all six vowels (counting y as a vowel).

What is the longest monosyllabic English word?
Schmaltzed and strengthed (10 letters) appear to be the longest monosyllabic words recorded in The Oxford English Dictionary… but squirrelled (11 letters) is the longest if pronounced as one syllable only (as permitted in the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary and Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary at squirrel, and in Longman Pronunciation Dictionary)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Longest_word_in_English
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What is a heterogram?
A heterogram (from hetero-, meaning "different", with -gram, meaning 'written') is a word, phrase, or sentence in which no letter of the alphabet occurs more than once. The terms isogram and nonpattern word have also been used to mean the same thing. It is not clear who coined or popularised the term "heterogram".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heterogram_(linguistics)
/RogerE :D

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Waffle
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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Waffle »

Stamp of Singapore 2013 Greetings-SignLanguage Issued 17/6/2013 to promote greater awareness of the deaf community. (This is not posted facetiously! I may explain my school facetious story one day.)
Stamp of Singapore 2013 Greetings-SignLanguage Issued 17/6/2013 to promote greater awareness of the deaf community. (This is not posted facetiously! I may explain my school facetious story one day.)
I prefer to collect UK, British Commonwealth esp Pacific area ( not excluding West Indies/Canada ) and Western Europe. At the bottom of my zone of interest is Eastern Europe and communist countries.

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Sign Language on Stamps

Thanks Waffle for posting that Singaporean sign language set.

May I remind readers/viewers that there was an earlier sequence of posts about sign languages in this thread (which I have located by using the index posts for this thread). Check out the seven posts starting with the first of the following links, and especially look at the post with the second link:
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=501
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=505
___________________
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Brazilian Sign Language

Here is a sheet of Sign Language stamps issued last year by Brazil:
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Brazil 2020: 6x5 sheet , Brazilian Sign Language stamps
Brazil 2020: 6x5 sheet , Brazilian Sign Language stamps
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Portuguese Note (and "mechanical" English translation)
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https://www.libras.com.br/alfabeto-manual
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The comments about the main role for the sign language alphabet are an important clarification for those of us who are not fluent users of a sign language. The alphabet signs help communication needed to clarify words such as people's names, place names and unfamiliar words. But for most communication the alphabet is bypassed in favour of signs for whole words or phrases.

/RogerE :D

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RogerE
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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Sign Languages are Culture Specific

There is not one single sign language that is used worldwide. Just like spoken languages, sign languages vary from one culture to another.

The Disability Australia Hub has a nice excerpt from The Language Blog on this subject.
https://www.disabilityaustraliahub.com.au/sign-language-around-the-world/
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This very informative piece gives us insight into sign languages of Britain, Australia and New Zealand, French Sign Language, American Sign Language, Irish Sign Language, Chinese Sign Language, Brazilian Sign Language (Libras), and Indo-Pakistani Sign Language.
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If you would like to see/learn a few friendly signs in Australian Sign Language = Auslan, here is a pleasant two minute video that I think you will enjoy:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ax1eKpo9RuQ
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/RogerE :D

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