Aussie cars - my other hobby

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BigSaint
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Volkswagen Beetle


The Volkswagen Beetle—officially the Volkswagen Type 1, informally in German der Käfer (meaning "beetle"), in parts of the English-speaking world the Bug,[11] and known by many other nicknames in other languages—is a two-door, rear-engine economy car, intended for five occupants (later, Beetles were restricted to four people in some countries), that was manufactured and marketed by German automaker Volkswagen (VW) from 1938 until 2003.

The need for a people's car (Volkswagen in German), its concept and its functional objectives were formulated by the leader of Nazi Germany, Adolf Hitler, who wanted a cheap, simple car to be mass-produced for his country's new road network (Reichsautobahn). Members of the National Socialist party, with an additional dues surcharge, were promised the first production, but the Spanish Civil War shifted most production resources to military vehicles to support the Nationalists under Francisco Franco.

Lead engineer Ferdinand Porsche and his team took until 1938 to finalise the design. Béla Barényi is credited with first conceiving the original design for this car in 1925, notably by Mercedes-Benz, on their website, including his original technical drawing, five years before Porsche claimed to have done his initial version. The influence on Porsche's design of other contemporary cars, such as the Tatra V570, and the work of Josef Ganz remains a subject of dispute. The result was the first Volkswagen, and one of the first rear-engined cars since the Brass Era. With 21,529,464 produced, the Beetle is the longest-running and most-manufactured car of a single platform ever made.


1971–1973 Volkswagen Type 1 1302 (Super Beetle)
1971–1973 Volkswagen Type 1 1302 (Super Beetle)
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Model of the 1932 Porsche Type 12, Nuremberg Museum of Industrial Culture
Model of the 1932 Porsche Type 12, Nuremberg Museum of Industrial Culture

First model of the Standard Superior, as introduced at the IAMA in Berlin in 1933
First model of the Standard Superior, as introduced at the IAMA in Berlin in 1933

Tatra V570 prototype (1933)
Tatra V570 prototype (1933)

Type 32 prototype, developed for NSU (Autostadt ZeitHaus, Wolfsburg)
Type 32 prototype, developed for NSU (Autostadt ZeitHaus, Wolfsburg)
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The Type 1 was used for the entire life of the original Volkswagen (nicknamed, but never officially called, the Beetle) from 1938 to 2003, and is one of the world's longest-lived production engines. As well as the Beetle, it was fitted to the Type 2 commercial vehicles (including the Transporter), the Type 3 sedan, the Karmann Ghia sports car and a great many light aircraft.

In those models, its capacity ranged from 985cc to 1.6 liters. A larger derivative, ranging in size from 1.7 to 2.0 liters, was used in the Volkswagen 411 and 412 and the Porsche 914.


Front view of a Wehrmacht Typ 82E in dunkelgelb.
Front view of a Wehrmacht Typ 82E in dunkelgelb.

The early postwar export model with 1131cc engine was marketed as Type 11 in some markets (1948 Amsterdam AutoRAI Autoshow).
The early postwar export model with 1131cc engine was marketed as Type 11 in some markets (1948 Amsterdam AutoRAI Autoshow).

1949 split-window
1949 split-window

The jeweled one-millionth Type 1
The jeweled one-millionth Type 1

Under 700 Hebmüller Cabriolets were built between 1949 and 1953
Under 700 Hebmüller Cabriolets were built between 1949 and 1953
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1960 VW 1200 Cabriolet
1960 VW 1200 Cabriolet

1956 Volkswagen Beetle
1956 Volkswagen Beetle

1968 Type 1
1968 Type 1

Beetle 1303 Cabriolet (aftermarket wheels)
Beetle 1303 Cabriolet (aftermarket wheels)
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1973 1303/Super Beetle
1973 1303/Super Beetle

1973–74 1303/Super Beetle "Big"
1973–74 1303/Super Beetle "Big"

1969 Brazilian 1300 Sedan (Fusca)
1969 Brazilian 1300 Sedan (Fusca)

1995 Mexican Volkswagen Beetle, the last model with chrome moldings. In the picture, the 1995 Jeans Limited Edition.
1995 Mexican Volkswagen Beetle, the last model with chrome moldings. In the picture, the 1995 Jeans Limited Edition.
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&quot;Última Edición&quot; (Final Edition) in Aquarius Blue (2003).<br />The last Volkswagen Beetle produced, manufactured in Puebla, Mexico, 30 July 2003
"Última Edición" (Final Edition) in Aquarius Blue (2003).
The last Volkswagen Beetle produced, manufactured in Puebla, Mexico, 30 July 2003

A Beetle decorated in the Huichol style of beading now on display at the Museo de Arte Popular in Mexico City
A Beetle decorated in the Huichol style of beading now on display at the Museo de Arte Popular in Mexico City


Baja Bug–style modified Beetle
Baja Bug–style modified Beetle

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volkswagen_Beetle
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The greatest German engines ever made


Porsche flat-six
Porsche flat-six

Germany has been producing engines from the dawn of motoring until the present day.
In nearly 140 years, the country's portfolio of engines has developed into something quite remarkable. It includes simple but effective motors for everyday transport, as well as gigantic units of awesome power, and almost everything in between.

Restricting this list to just 20 engines inevitably means that many worthy contenders have had to be left out, so our apologies in advance:
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Audi R10 TDI


Audi R10 TDI
Audi R10 TDI

Audi developed a twin-turbocharged, 5.5-liter V12 diesel engine which made its debut in the R10 TDI sports racing car in 2006. The R10 was wildly successful, winning the Le Mans 24 Hours, the Sebring 12 Hours and the LMP1 class in the American Le Mans Series that year. No diesel-powered car had ever done any of these things before.

Audi repeated its Le Mans and ALMS victories in 2007 and 2008 before the R10 was replaced by another diesel racer, the 5.5-litre V10 R15 TDI. This engine did much to demonstrate the prowess of the Volkswagen Group in producing diesel engines, but it proved to be a somewhat problematic legacy… It’s fair to say you’re unlikely to see the letters TDI emblazoned on any race cars ever again.
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Audi R5


Audi R5
Audi R5

R5 was a family of five-cylinder engines used in many Audis and some Volkswagens. The most famous member was the 2.1-liter turbocharged unit fitted to the Audi Quattro from 1980 onwards, first with two valves per cylinder and later with four.

The engine helped Audi to dominate international rallying in the early 1980s, partly because it was very powerful. This did not cause traction problems on gravel roads because Audi was also the first manufacturer in the sport to take the idea of four-wheel drive seriously.
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Auto Union V16


Auto Union V16
Auto Union V16

All of the frighteningly fast Grand Prix and record cars built by Mercedes and Auto Union from 1934 to 1939 had formidable engines, but the Auto Union V16 was perhaps the most glorious of them all. Designed by Porsche, it was not a high revver (no version was ever taken as far as 6000 RPM), but it produced thundering torque and correspondingly enormous power.

The ultimate version, built only for record-breaking, measured 6.3 liters and had a peak output of 545 hp. In 1938, a rule change obliged Auto Union to develop a 3.0-liter V12 for Grand Prix racing.
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Benz Patent Motorwagen


Benz Patent Motorwagen
Benz Patent Motorwagen

On paper, the single-cylinder engine built by Karl Benz (1844-1929) in 1885 does not seem impressive from a 21st-century standpoint. Although it had a capacity of 954cc, similar to that of many small units found today, it was unable to produce as much as 1 hp.

However, it is one of the most significant engines ever made in Germany, or anywhere else, because it was fitted to Benz's Patent Motorwagen, widely regarded as the world's first car. For later versions, Benz designed and built stronger engines with power outputs of up to 2 hp – the power of two horses, with a heck of a lot less ‘maintenance’.
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Blitzen Benz


Blitzen Benz
Blitzen Benz

The Benz cars which finished second and third in the 1908 French Grand Prix were both fitted with four-cylinder engines of at least 12 liters. Free from the restrictions of Grand Prix rules, Benz then developed a monstrous 21.5-liter version for a car nicknamed the Blitzen ('thunder') Benz, of which six examples were built.

The 200km/h (124mph) target speed was beaten during a successful Land Speed Record attempt in 1909. A later 142mph run did not take place under LSR regulations, but driver Bob Burman (1884-1916) had unofficially reached the highest speed achieved to date by any vehicle, including aeroplanes.
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BMW M20


BMW M20
BMW M20

BMW is renowned for its smooth-running straight-six engines. A classic example of the type is the M20, introduced to the 3 Series and 5 Series ranges in 1977 as a 2.0-liter. It subsequently appeared with capacities of up to 2.7 liters before being discontinued in the early 1990s.

The M20 was mostly fitted to sedans, but also powered the radical BMW M1 roadster in 2.5-liter form. In 2.0-liter form, it was noticeably smoother than four-cylinder rivals, as this famous advert from the ‘80s emphasises.
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BMW S14


BMW S14
BMW S14

The S14 was a high-revving four-cylinder engine used in the first-generation BMW M3. For road cars, it appeared first in 2.3-liter form and was later expanded to 2.5 liters. For motorsport, it was often reduced to 2.0 liters to meet championship regulations.

The scream of a tuned S14 made the M3 a very dramatic rally car, but it was even more successful in circuit racing, winning the Australian, British, German, Italian, European and World Touring Car Championships.
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BMW N74


BMW N74 in a BMW M760Li
BMW N74 in a BMW M760Li

The N74 is a twin-turbo V12 which has been available in various capacities from 6.0 to 6.75 liters. Power outputs have ranged from nearly 547 hp to over 630 hp, but the engine is not intended for use in sporting cars.

The only BMWs fitted with it have been upscale members of the 7 Series family like the M760Li xDrive pictured. Since 2010, it has also been used in models produced by Rolls-Royce, which BMW currently owns.
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Bugatti W16


Bugatti W16 in a 2005 Bugatti Veyron
Bugatti W16 in a 2005 Bugatti Veyron

Although Bugatti is a French brand, it is owned by Volkswagen, and uses a great deal of German technology. This includes a formidable quad-turbo 8.0-liter W16 engine, whose unique layout was created (more or less) by mounting two narrow-angle 4.0-liter V8s on a shared crankcase.

The engine had already appeared in the Audi Rosemeyer and Bentley Hunaudieres concept cars before reaching production in the 2005 Bugatti Veyron (pictured). In most Veyrons, the W16 produced 1000 hp, but its output was raised to 1500 hp for the Bugatti Chiron, which replaced the Veyron in 2016.
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Daimler DB603


Daimler DB603 in a Mercedes T80
Daimler DB603 in a Mercedes T80

The DB603 was one of the most remarkable engines developed in Germany or anywhere else for use in a car. The car in question was the Mercedes T80, which was designed for an attempt on the Land Speed Record. The 44.5-liter V12 produced around 3000 hp, which seemed like enough when the project began in the mid 1930s.

The Second World War diverted everyone's attention from record breaking. By the time Mercedes was in a position to think about it again, the record had been raised to 394mph. Since that was 21mph above the target speed for the T80, the project was abandoned.
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DKW two-stroke


DKW two-stroke in a 1960 Audi
DKW two-stroke in a 1960 Audi

By acquiring a patent for a system called loop scavenging, using it well and setting the lawyers on anyone who came close to it, DKW became the world's leading manufacturer of two-stroke cars and motorcycles. It was so successful that it could afford to buy Audi in 1928.

DKW finally developed the four-stroke F103 in the 1960s. Its then owner, Volkswagen, resurrected the by now long-dormant Audi name rather then persevere with one associated with noisy, smelly engines. Audi would therefore now be almost forgotten if it hadn’t been for the two-strokes which killed the brand that made them.
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MAN B&W 11G95ME-C9.5


MAN B&amp;W 11G95ME-C9.5 in the MSC Jade container ship.
MAN B&W 11G95ME-C9.5 in the MSC Jade container ship.

Although this article is mostly about cars, we can't write about German engines without mentioning the incredible marine unit produced by MAN (part of Volkswagen) and used in the gigantic 400-metre long, 19,000 container-carrying MSC Jade.

The 11-cylinder two-stroke produces around 103,000 hp at a positively relaxed 80rpm. Its 26,977-liter capacity is approximately 1677 liters greater than that of the Finnish Wärtsilä-Sulzer RTA96-C, which is often (but wrongly) described as the world's largest internal combustion engine.
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Mercedes M139


Mercedes M139
Mercedes M139

The M139 is a two-litre turbocharged four-cylinder engine fitted to the Mercedes-AMG A 45 hatchback, the CLA 45 fastback and the GLA 45 crossover. It's available with outputs of either 387 hp or 422 hp. In the latter form, it’s said to be the most powerful four-cylinder engine fitted to a production car.

In fact, Mitsubishi developed a 446 hp engine of similar size and layout for a version of the Evo X sold in the UK, but only 40 examples were ever built. Depending on your definition of a production car, the Evo might therefore not qualify, whereas the Mercedes models unquestionably do.
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Mercedes M156


Mercedes M156 in the E 63 AMG
Mercedes M156 in the E 63 AMG

The M156 is historically significant because it was the first engine designed from scratch by Mercedes subsidiary AMG, rather than by Mercedes itself. Although the V8 unit measures almost exactly 6.2 liters, the various models fitted with it all had 63 in their titles, including the E 63 AMG (pictured) and, rather improbably, the high-performance version of the R-Class MPV.

The M156 was produced from 2006 to 2011, with outputs of up to 525 hp. The even more powerful M159 derivative was used in the Mercedes SLS AMG sports car.
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Mercedes M196


Mercedes M196 with Stirling Moss (pictured at the wheel)
Mercedes M196 with Stirling Moss (pictured at the wheel)

Mercedes created the 2.5-liter straight-eight M196 engine for its W196 Grand Prix car, and enlarged it to 2.9 liters for the 300 SLR sports racer. Technical highlights included direct fuel injection and desmodromic valves, which were pushed shut rather than allowed to return to their closed position by the release of a spring.

In the two years before Mercedes made one of its periodic withdrawals from motorsport, Juan Manuel Fangio (1911-1995) became F1 World Champion in both 1954 and 1955 driving the W196, while Stirling Moss (1929-2020, pictured at the wheel) famously won the 1955 Mille Miglia in the 300 SLR.
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Opel CIH


Opel CIH
Opel CIH

The Opel Cam In Head engine's name is derived from the fact that its camshaft was mounted in the cylinder head rather than the block, but between the valves rather than above them as in a conventional overhead-camshaft layout.

Remarkable for its longevity, the CIH was first used exclusively in Opel models, and later in equivalent vehicles sold by sister company Vauxhall. It made its debut in the Opel Rekord of 1965, and was still being used three decades later in the Isuzu off-roader sold in Europe as the Frontera.
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Porsche flat-six


Porsche flat-six
Porsche flat-six

Porsche designed air-cooled flat-four engines for the original Volkswagen, and for its own 356 and 912 models. For the 911, the company added two more cylinders to the design, and thereby created what is widely regarded as one of the world's greatest engines.

Although there were many detail changes - including turbocharging - over the years, the most significant development was the introduction of water cooling in 1997, over 30 years after the 911 first went on sale.
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Volkswagen EA827


Volkswagen EA827 in a VW Golf GTI
Volkswagen EA827 in a VW Golf GTI

Although the EA827 is now regarded as a Volkswagen Group engine, it actually made its debut in the 1972 Audi 80. It was available for several decades in sizes ranging from 1.3 to 2.0 liters, and used in a great many VWs and Audis, and later SEATs and Skodas.

Most significantly, it powered the first-generation VW Golf GTI (pictured), regarded by some (probably wrongly) as the first hot hatch. Later developments included supercharging (for models wearing the G60 badge) and the fitment of a 16-valve cylinder head.
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Volkswagen Type 1


Volkswagen Type 1 - &quot;Beetle&quot;
Volkswagen Type 1 - "Beetle"

The Type 1 was used for the entire life of the original Volkswagen (nicknamed, but never officially called, the Beetle) from 1938 to 2003, and is one of the world's longest-lived production engines. As well as the Beetle, it was fitted to the Type 2 commercial vehicles (including the Transporter), the Type 3 sedan, the Karmann Ghia sports car and a great many light aircraft.

In those models, its capacity ranged from 985cc to 1.6 liters. A larger derivative, ranging in size from 1.7 to 2.0 liters, was used in the Volkswagen 411 and 412 and the Porsche 914.
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Volkswagen W8


Volkswagen W8
Volkswagen W8

The W16 engine used by Bugatti is not the only example of a layout attempted by Volkswagen and no other company. The same applies to the 4.0-liter W8, which amounts to two narrow-angle 2.0-liter V4 engine sharing a single crankshaft.

Producing up to 275 hp, it was the only W8 engine ever to be fitted in a vehicle sold to the public. It made its debut in the Volkswagen Passat in 2001 and was discontinued three years later. There is still no sign of a successor.


https://www.msn.com/en-us/autos/enthusiasts/the-greatest-ger ... 4#image=21
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I wrote about this car two days ago on the previous page.


Classic Falcon sells for record $1.3m

A classic Ford Falcon has fetched well over $1 million at auction, setting a record price for iconic Australian cars.


© PR HANDOUT IMAGE PHOTO The Yellow Glo Ford GTHO Phase III Falcon sold at auction for $1.3 million
© PR HANDOUT IMAGE PHOTO The Yellow Glo Ford GTHO Phase III Falcon sold at auction for $1.3 million

The Yellow Glo Ford GTHO Phase III Falcon sold on Saturday for $1.3 million, making it the most expensive road registerable Australian classic sold under the hammer.

Lloyds Auctions chief operating officer Lee Hames said he wasn't surprised by the price.

"It is the pinnacle of Australian muscle cars and has consistently held its value over its lifespan since its release in 1971," Mr Hames said in a statement on Sunday.

Also being auctioned was a collection of rare Holdens which also achieved record prices.

A 1996 Holden HSV VS GTSR sold for a whopping $1 million under the hammer while a HSV GTSR W1 sold to a Holden enthusiast for $750,000.

Mr Hames said Holdens and Fords continue to appreciate, adding that "anything of a limited build, celebrity affiliation, significant history or chrome bumpers just keeps going up in value".


https://www.msn.com/en-au/news/other/classic-falcon-sells-fo ... d=msedgntp
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The end of the road for the Beetle


Beetle 1.jpg

It's the end of the road for the Beetle

When the iconic Beetle stopped production, it marked the end of a nearly 80-year chapter in Volkswagen's history. Feeling nostalgic? Browse this gallery and take a nostalgic road trip through the history of this distinctive and much-loved motor car.
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Re: Aussie cars - my other hobby

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Volkswagen Beetle


Pictured: Ferdinand Porsche (1875–1951)
Pictured: Ferdinand Porsche (1875–1951)

Pictured: Ferdinand Porsche (1875–1951), the creator of the Volkswagen Beetle. In 1934, Porsche received an order from Adolf Hitler to design a "people's car." Porsche had already begun developing vehicles that incorporated the classic shape of the Beetle.
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BigSaint
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Volkswagen Beetle


The 1933 Type 32 prototype was characterized by a curved chassis.
The 1933 Type 32 prototype was characterized by a curved chassis.
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Volkswagen Beetle


Adolf Hitler inspects the new Volkswagen &quot;people's car&quot; at the Fallersleben car factory, 1938. <br />On Hitler's left is Ferdinand Porsche
Adolf Hitler inspects the new Volkswagen "people's car" at the Fallersleben car factory, 1938.
On Hitler's left is Ferdinand Porsche

During this period the car was known as the KdF-Wagen, a name chosen by the German leader.
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Re: Aussie cars - my other hobby

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Volkswagen Beetle


VW 1949 Type 1 split-window model.
VW 1949 Type 1 split-window model.

Civilian car production was halted during World War II and resumed in 1945. A new factory located in renamed Wolfsburg became Volkwagen's manufacturing hub. By 1946 the factory was producing 1,000 cars a month. Pictured is a 1949 Type 1 split-window model.
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Re: Aussie cars - my other hobby

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Volkswagen Beetle


Volkswagen Beetle - The sparse but practical interior of the 1949 Type 1
Volkswagen Beetle - The sparse but practical interior of the 1949 Type 1
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Re: Aussie cars - my other hobby

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Volkswagen Beetle


Production increased dramatically over the next decade. <br />By 1955 around one million cars were coming off the assembly line.
Production increased dramatically over the next decade.
By 1955 around one million cars were coming off the assembly line.
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Re: Aussie cars - my other hobby

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Volkswagen Beetle


Hitler had wanted a vehicle that was cheap to buy, simple to drive, <br />and could be mass-produced for the country's new road network.
Hitler had wanted a vehicle that was cheap to buy, simple to drive,
and could be mass-produced for the country's new road network.
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Volkswagen Beetle


Volkswagen adhered to these guiding principals, but the vehicle's output was boosted <br />from its original 25 hp to 36, then 40 hp as Autobahn speeds increased in the postwar years.
Volkswagen adhered to these guiding principals, but the vehicle's output was boosted
from its original 25 hp to 36, then 40 hp as Autobahn speeds increased in the postwar years.
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Volkswagen Beetle


Air-cooled and designed with the engine in the rear, the vehicle, <br />now known as the Beetle, was economical to maintain and surprisingly robust.
Air-cooled and designed with the engine in the rear, the vehicle,
now known as the Beetle, was economical to maintain and surprisingly robust.
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Volkswagen Beetle


A Beetle parked outside the Gloria cinema on the Kurfürstendamm in West Berlin, 1956.
A Beetle parked outside the Gloria cinema on the Kurfürstendamm in West Berlin, 1956.
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Volkswagen Beetle


Another image from West Germany, this time taken in 1958, depicts several Beetles <br />parked outside Café Keese on the Reeperbahn in Hamburg's St. Pauli district.
Another image from West Germany, this time taken in 1958, depicts several Beetles
parked outside Café Keese on the Reeperbahn in Hamburg's St. Pauli district.
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Volkswagen Beetle


The jeweled one-millionth Type 1 1955 Beetle on display at the Wolfsburg Autostadt Museum. It's painted in a buttery ingot gold, enhanced with diamanté encrusted bumpers and trim, and fitted with a plush pink cloth interior.
The jeweled one-millionth Type 1 1955 Beetle on display at the Wolfsburg Autostadt Museum. It's painted in a buttery ingot gold, enhanced with diamanté encrusted bumpers and trim, and fitted with a plush pink cloth interior.
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Volkswagen Beetle


The VW Beetle was extremely successful throughout the 1960s. Indeed, it <br />experienced its greatest sales growth in North America between 1960 and 1965.
The VW Beetle was extremely successful throughout the 1960s. Indeed, it
experienced its greatest sales growth in North America between 1960 and 1965.
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Re: Aussie cars - my other hobby

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Volkswagen Beetle


The Beetle became a popular touring vehicle. This image from 1966 depicts a traveler <br />taking a break from driving in South Tyrol, Italy and enjoying the alpine views.
The Beetle became a popular touring vehicle. This image from 1966 depicts a traveler
taking a break from driving in South Tyrol, Italy and enjoying the alpine views.
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Volkswagen Beetle


'The Love Bug' (1968) starred a 1963 racing Beetle called Herbie and was <br />hugely successful. The film spawned four sequels and a TV series.
'The Love Bug' (1968) starred a 1963 racing Beetle called Herbie and was
hugely successful. The film spawned four sequels and a TV series.
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Volkswagen Beetle


Herbie the car is seen during the UK Premiere of 'Herbie: Fully Loaded' in London, 2005. <br />The sports-comedy film grossed over US$144 million worldwide.
Herbie the car is seen during the UK Premiere of 'Herbie: Fully Loaded' in London, 2005.
The sports-comedy film grossed over US$144 million worldwide.
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Re: Aussie cars - my other hobby

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Volkswagen Beetle


A model demonstrates a reclining chair made from the hood of a Volkswagen Beetle, <br />as was the fashion in 1971 for wacky, ad-hoc design.
A model demonstrates a reclining chair made from the hood of a Volkswagen Beetle,
as was the fashion in 1971 for wacky, ad-hoc design.
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Volkswagen Beetle


By 1973, total Beetle production was over 16 million, and by June 1992, <br />over 21 million had been produced.
By 1973, total Beetle production was over 16 million, and by June 1992,
over 21 million had been produced.
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Volkswagen Beetle


The manufacture of the Beetle continued in Germany until 1978, <br />when mainstream production shifted to Brazil and Mexico.
The manufacture of the Beetle continued in Germany until 1978,
when mainstream production shifted to Brazil and Mexico.
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Volkswagen Beetle


The much-loved Beetle convertible/Cabriolet ended production (as 1979 models) on January 31, 1980.
The much-loved Beetle convertible/Cabriolet ended production (as 1979 models) on January 31, 1980.
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Re: Aussie cars - my other hobby

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Volkswagen Beetle


The final edition of the VW Beetle was unveiled at a presentation at the Volkswagen plant in Puebla, Mexico, on July 10, 2003. VW subsequently made 3000 &quot;classic&quot; Type 1 Beetles before ceasing production for good.
The final edition of the VW Beetle was unveiled at a presentation at the Volkswagen plant in Puebla, Mexico, on July 10, 2003. VW subsequently made 3000 "classic" Type 1 Beetles before ceasing production for good.
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