The previous post, about 2022 = Year of the Water Tiger, complements the first subject on the previous page:
both posts include information about the Chinese Sexagenary Calendar:
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Not to change the subject here, in response to Sandie's beautiful book -ASPS_StampIT wrote: ↑13 Aug 2022 00:00 Roger
Yes on the site there is also an answer book to the Let's Look at China - direct link here https://scottishphilately.co.uk/moodle/pluginfile.php/252/mo ... _FINAL.pdf
Glad you like. Thanks
Precisely. Ideograms appear to have similar roots in human thought across the globe. "In the midst of...& Middle" being some of the more obvious examples ('divided in two"). Even the archaic Chinese symbol for "sun" is identical to the ancient Egyptian. Always fascinating how the human mind operates
Languages of MaltaIr-Rabat (Victoria) is the capital city of the island of Gozo. The name Victoria was given to the town in 1887 in honour of the famous British Queen’s Golden Jubilee. At the same time, the town was raised to the status of a city becoming officially known as Citta’ ir-Rabat (Victoria).
Ir-Rabat (Victoria) embraces both the Citadel, the ancient fortified city at the centre of the Island, and the surrounding town old Rabat (meaning suburb in Arabic and Archaic Maltese) and its modern additions.
There are many places of historical and cultural interest in ir-Rabat (Victoria). A visit to the Citadel is a must. Its towering fortifications afford superb views over the whole Island and within the Citadel are many of the main historical sites of ir-Rabat (Victoria) including the The Cathedral Museum, the Museum of Archaeology, the Folklore Museum, the Gozo Nature Museum, the Old Prison, the Old Gunpowder Magazine, the Grain Silos, the Battery and the World War II Shelter.
The centre of ir-Rabat (Victoria) is Pjazza Indipendenza (Independence Square), known as it-Tokk. The square is dominated by the Banca Giuratale, built between 1733 and 1738, formerly the seat of the municipal government of Gozo and presently of the ir-Rabat (Victoria) Local Council. In the mornings, there is an open market that shares the square with several open air cafes.
The magnificent St.George’s Basilica stands in a smaller square just behind It-Tokk in the heart of the old town. The web of narrow streets around St. George’s are the oldest in town and well worth a walk around.
In Triq ir-Repubblika (Republic Street), ir-Rabat (Victoria)’s main street, there are all kinds of shops, a couple of shopping arcades, pharmacies, banks, the Police Headquarters, and the Bishop’s Chancery, as well as La Stella and Leone Band Clubs in their respective homes, the Astra and Aurora opera theatres. In lower Republic Street (a little further from It-Tokk) is Villa Rundle Public Gardens, laid out by the British in 1910 and recently refurbished. With a variety of local and imported trees and a cooling fountain, the gardens are an oasis of peace.
Gozo Philatelic SocietyWikipedia wrote:Malta has two official languages: Maltese and English. Maltese is the national language. Until 1934, Italian was also an official language in Malta, and in the 19th and 20th centuries there was a linguistic and political debate known as the Language Question about the roles of these three languages. The Maltese population is generally able to converse in languages which are not native to the country, particularly English and Italian. They can also somewhat understand Darija [also known as Maghrebi Arabic].
According to the Eurobarometer poll conducted in 2012, 98% of Maltese people can speak Maltese, 88% can speak English, 66% can speak Italian, and more than 17% speak French. This shows a recent increase in fluency in languages, since in 1995, while 98% of the population spoke Maltese, only 76% spoke English, 36% Italian, and 10% French. It shows an increase in Italian fluency, compared to when Italian was an official language of Malta, due to Italian television broadcasts reaching Malta.
Roger~~RogerE wrote: ↑16 Aug 2022 19:51 English — British vs American
Two nations separated by a common language — where does that expression originate?
Apologies honza. I was using my OXFORD dictionary where "who" is less formal & the exception to the rule, not a hard guideline, though, I understand how a possessive form might be confusing. I was being polite, as those in polite society should attempt to do amongst those they are not completely familiar with. I'm "old-school." Hopefully this isn't a point of contention on Americanisms "...for WHOM the bell tolls."
Notes (sourced from relevant Wikipedia pages):Wikipedia wrote:Maltese (Maltese: Malti) is a Semitic language derived from late medieval Sicilian Arabic with Romance superstrata spoken by the Maltese people.
It is the national language of Malta and the only official Semitic language of the European Union. Maltese is a latinised variety of spoken historical Arabic through its descent from Siculo-Arabic (ª), which developed as a Maghrebi Arabic (ªª) dialect in the Emirate of Sicily between 831 and 1091. As a result of the Norman invasion of Malta and the subsequent re-Christianisation of the islands, Maltese evolved independently of Classical Arabic in a gradual process of Latinisation. It is therefore exceptional as a variety of historical Arabic that has no diglossic (º) relationship with Classical or Modern Standard Arabic. Maltese is thus classified separately from the 30 varieties constituting the modern Arabic macrolanguage (*). Maltese is also distinguished from Arabic and other Semitic languages since its morphology (^) has been deeply influenced by Romance languages, namely Italian and Sicilian.
The original Arabic base comprises around one-third of the Maltese vocabulary, especially words that denote basic ideas and the function words, but about half of the vocabulary is derived from standard Italian and Sicilian; and English words make up between 6% and 20% of the vocabulary. A 2016 study shows that, in terms of basic everyday language, speakers of Maltese are able to understand around a third of what is said to them in Tunisian Arabic, which is a Maghrebi Arabic related to Siculo-Arabic, whereas speakers of Tunisian Arabic are able to understand about 40% of what is said to them in Maltese. This reported level of asymmetric intelligibility is considerably lower than the mutual intelligibility found between other varieties of Arabic.
Maltese has always been written in the Latin script, the earliest surviving example dating from the late Middle Ages. It is the only standardised Semitic language written exclusively in the Latin script.
A syzygy is the alignment of three celestial bodies in a straight line, commonly the Earth, the sun, and the Moon.
Wikipedia wrote: In astronomy, a syzygy (/ˈsɪzədʒi/ SIZ-ə-jee; from Ancient Greek συζυγία [suzugía] — union, yoke) is a roughly straight-line configuration of three or more celestial bodies in a gravitational system.
The word is often used in reference to the Sun, Earth, and either the Moon or a planet, where the latter is in conjunction or opposition. Solar and lunar eclipses occur at times of syzygy, as do transits and occultations. The term is often applied when the Sun and Moon are in conjunction (new moon) or opposition (full moon).
The word syzygy is often used to describe interesting configurations of astronomical objects in general. For example, one such case occurred on 21 March 1894, around 23:00 GMT, when Mercury transited the Sun as would have been seen from Venus, and Mercury and Venus both simultaneously transited the Sun as seen from Saturn. It is also used to describe situations when all the planets are on the same side of the Sun although they are not necessarily in a straight line, such as on 10 March 1982...
Syzygy sometimes results in an occultation, transit, or eclipse.
• An occultation occurs when an apparently larger body passes in front of an apparently smaller one.
• A transit occurs when a smaller body passes in front of a larger one.
In the combined case where the smaller body regularly transits the larger, an occultation is also termed a secondary eclipse.
• An eclipse occurs when a body totally or partially disappears from view, either by an occultation, as with a solar eclipse, or by passing into the shadow of another body, as with a lunar eclipse (thus both are listed on NASA's eclipse page).
.Both dreamed and dreamt have been past tense forms of dream since the 14th century. "I dreamt a dream tonight," says Romeo to Mercutio in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, written in the late 16th century. Shakespeare typically opted for dreamt in his works, but occasionally employed dreamed as well.
A century and change later, Jonathan Swift vacillated between dreamed and dreamt in Journal to Stella, a series of letters written between 1710 and 1713 and published posthumously in 1766, but chose dreamed for the one past-tense occurrence of dream in the 1726 Gulliver's Travels.
By the 19th century, evidence suggests that most major writers (or perhaps their editors and/or publishers) were somewhat conflicted. While Jane Austen and William Makepeace Thackeray were dedicated dreamt users, and Edith Wharton and Virginia Woolf consistently favoured dreamed, other 19th and early 20th century writers — among them Charlotte Brontë, Mark Twain, G.K. Chesterton, Herman Melville, Walter Scott, Joseph Conrad, Jack London, Charles Dickens, Thomas Hardy, Henry James, H.G. Wells, James Joyce, and P.G. Wodehouse — used both. But both the literary world and English speakers generally were moving decidedly away from dreamt, with dreamed becoming the clearly dominant form in the first half of the 19th century.
Merriam Webster wrote:Dreamed, of course, follows the pattern of most verbs. The great majority of English verbs take the familiar -ed for their past tense and past-participle forms. These are regular verbs that play by the rules. Other not-so-predictable verbs are irregular. The regular verbs are sometimes called weak and the irregular verbs sometimes called strong, presumably because the former are a docile and tractable bunch while the latter seem to do whatever they gosh darn well please.
Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learners English Dictionary (a dictionary for non-native speakers) lists about 300 irregular verbs, the majority of them being simple, usually single-syllable words. It's a small number, but its members are powerful: they include those we use most often; as linguist Steven Pinker has pointed out, the ten most common English verbs (be, have, do, say, make, go, take, come, see, and get) are irregular [strong], and chances are quite good (70% good) that if you're using a verb it's an irregular [strong] one.
Both regular and irregular verbs date back to Old English, but the number of ho-hum [regular, weak] -ed forms has increased over the centuries, and only the most common irregular [strong] verbs have kept their quirky conjugations. There are still glimpses of the less common strong verb forms here and there, especially in dialectal English. Someone native to parts of the South might say "I love to climb trees but have never clomb/clome that one there." Climbed has been the norm since around the 16th century, but the other form still exists, secreted away in dialects.
According to Garner’s Modern [American] English Usage, the phrase she dove appears 1.2 times for every instance of she dived. In other words, dove is here to stay, and its widespread use has caused it to be accepted into standard American English.
Despite its popularity in American English, dove still isn’t the preferred or most common form in British English. Dived is still favo(u)red in British English, and would probably be the preferable choice in formal writing, but dove is not incorrect.
Thank you Waffle. Let's look at the language that evolved on Norfolk island.
Wikipedia wrote:Norfuk, Pitcairn-Norfolk: Norfuk (increasingly spelt Norfolk), or Norf'k, is the language spoken on Norfolk Island (in the Pacific Ocean) by the local residents. It is a blend of 18th-century English and Tahitian, originally introduced by Pitkern-speaking settlers from the Pitcairn Islands. Along with English, it is the co-official language of Norfolk Island... In 2007, the United Nations added Norfuk to its list of endangered languages
Pitkern-Norf'kIn the 1970s, the Norfolk community and specialists from mainland Australia noted that the Norfuk language was falling into decline and talks about how to implement Norfolk into the school system were under way. At this point in time, Norfuk did not have a standardised writing system as it was mostly an oral language. Several other individuals and groups took it upon themselves to help craft the necessary tools to help promote the Norfolk language. One of the first noted instances in which Norfolk was being taught in schools was in the 1980s, by Faye Bataille. Additionally, the Society of the Descendants of Pitcairn Islanders was founded in 1977 and they proved to be a large driving force for the campaign to include Norfuk language as a teachable subject in schools...
Alice Buffett, a Norfolk Island parliamentarian and Australian-trained linguist, developed a codified grammar and orthography for the language in the 1980s, assisted by Dr Donald Laycock, an Australian National University academic. Their book, Speak Norfuk Today, was published in 1988. This orthography has won the endorsement of the Norfolk Island government, and its use is becoming prevalent.
Norfuk became a language of Norfolk Island in 2004 by virtue of the Norfolk Island Language (Norf'k) Act 2004 passed by the island's legislative assembly.
In 2018, Eve Semple and colleagues received a grant from the Australian Research Council, in order to promote and facilitate revival.
Norfuk is descended predominantly from the Pitkern/Pitcairnese/Pi'kern spoken by settlers from the Pitcairn Islands. The relative ease of travel from English-speaking countries such as Australia and New Zealand to Norfolk Island, particularly when compared with that of travel to the Pitcairn Islands, has meant that Norfuk has been exposed to much greater contact with English relative to Pitkern. The difficulties in accessing the Pitcairn population have meant that a serious comparison of the two languages for mutual intelligibility has proven difficult.
Die Sinfonie Nr. 1 c-Moll op. 68 von Johannes Brahms wurde im November 1876 uraufgeführt. ...
Worten:Hoch auf'm Berg, tief im Tal,
grüß ich dich viel tausendmal!
I just found the full Latin text of the song, with two English translations:Wikipedia wrote:De Brevitate Vitae, Latin for On the Shortness of Life, more commonly known as Gaudeamus igitur — So Let Us Rejoice or just "Gaudeamus", is a popular academic commercium(**) song in many European countries, mainly sung or performed at university and high-school graduation ceremonies. Despite its use as a formal graduation hymn, it is a jocular, light-hearted composition that pokes fun at university life.
The song is thought to originate in a Latin manuscript from 1287. It is in the tradition of carpe diem — seize the day with its exhortations to enjoy life. It was known as a beer-drinking song.
The University of Wrocław [UWr]. Polish: Uniwersytet Wrocławski Latin: Universitas Wratislaviensis, is a public research university located in Wrocław, Poland. It is the largest institution of higher learning in the Lower Silesian Voivodeship with over 100,000 graduates since 1945, including some 1,900 researchers among whom many received the highest awards for their contribution to the development of scientific scholarship. Renowned for its relatively high quality of teaching, ... [it] is situated in the same campus as the former University of Breslau, which produced nine Nobel Prize winners.
It was founded in 1945, replacing the previous German University of Breslau. Following the territorial changes of Poland's borders, academics primarily from the Jan Kazimierz University of Lwów restored the university building heavily damaged and split as a result of the 1945 Battle of Breslau.
A commercium is a traditional academic feast known at universities in most Central and Northern European countries. In German it is called a Kommers or Commers. Today it is still organised by student fraternities in Germanic and Baltic countries, as well as Poland.
At a commercium, tables are often placed in the form of a U or a W, and the participants drink beer and sing commercium songs. There are strict and traditional rules that govern this occasion but it may also integrate theatrical and musical aspects. A commercium is the more formal form of the tableround, called Kneipe in German.